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37 "Fractures"
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Original Articles
Chest wall injury fracture patterns are associated with different mechanisms of injury: a retrospective review study in the United States
Jennifer M. Brewer, Owen P. Karsmarski, Jeremy Fridling, T. Russell Hill, Chasen J Greig, Sarah Posillico, Carol McGuiness, Erin McLaughlin, Stephanie C. Montgomery, Manuel Moutinho, Ronald Gross, Evert A. Eriksson, Andrew R. Doben
Received September 23, 2024  Accepted October 18, 2023  Published online February 23, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0065    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Research on rib fracture management has exponentially increased. Predicting fracture patterns based on the mechanism of injury (MOI) and other possible correlations may improve resource allocation and injury prevention strategies. The Chest Injury International Database (CIID) is the largest prospective repository of the operative and nonoperative management of patients with severe chest wall trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the MOI is associated with the resulting rib fracture patterns. We hypothesized that specific MOIs would be associated with distinct rib fracture patterns.
Methods
The CIID was queried to analyze fracture patterns based on the MOI. Patients were stratified by MOI: falls, motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), motorcycle collisions (MCCs), automobile-pedestrian collisions, and bicycle collisions. Fracture locations, associated injuries, and patient-specific variables were recorded. Heat maps were created to display the fracture incidence by rib location.
Results
The study cohort consisted of 1,121 patients with a median RibScore of 2 (0–3) and 9,353 fractures. The average age was 57±20 years, and 64% of patients were male. By MOI, the number of patients and fractures were as follows: falls (474 patients, 3,360 fractures), MVCs (353 patients, 3,268 fractures), MCCs (165 patients, 1,505 fractures), automobile-pedestrian collisions (70 patients, 713 fractures), and bicycle collisions (59 patients, 507 fractures). The most commonly injured rib was the sixth rib, and the most common fracture location was lateral. Statistically significant differences in the location and patterns of fractures were identified comparing each MOI, except for MCCs versus bicycle collisions.
Conclusions
Different mechanisms of injury result in distinct rib fracture patterns. These different patterns should be considered in the workup and management of patients with thoracic injuries. Given these significant differences, future studies should account for both fracture location and the MOI to better define what populations benefit from surgical versus nonoperative management.
Summary
Comparison of mortality between open and closed pelvic bone fractures in Korea using 1:2 propensity score matching: a single-center retrospective study
Jaeri Yoo, Donghwan Choi, Byung Hee Kang
Received September 8, 2023  Accepted October 22, 2023  Published online January 3, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0063    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Open pelvic bone fractures are relatively rare and are considered more severe than closed fractures. This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of open and closed severe pelvic bone fractures.
Methods
Patients with severe pelvic bone fractures (pelvic Abbreviated Injury Scale score, ≥4) admitted at a single level I trauma center between 2016 and 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients aged <16 years and those with incomplete medical records were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into open and closed fracture groups, and their demographics, treatment, and clinical outcomes were compared before and after 1:2 propensity score matching.
Results
Of the 321 patients, 24 were in the open fracture group and 297 were in the closed fracture group. The open fracture group had more infections (37.5% vs. 5.7%, P<0.001) and longer stays in the intensive care unit (median 11 days, interquartile range [IQR] 6–30 days vs. median 5 days, IQR 2–13 days; P=0.005), but mortality did not show a statistically significant difference (20.8% vs. 15.5%, P=0.559) before matching. After 1:2 propensity score matching, the infection rate was significantly higher in the open fracture group (37.5% vs. 6.3%, P=0.002), whereas the length of intensive care unit stay (median 11 days, IQR 6–30 days vs. median 8 days, IQR 4–19 days; P=0.312) and mortality (20.8% vs. 27.1%, P=0.564) were not significantly different.
Conclusions
The open pelvic fracture group had more infections than the closed pelvic fracture group, but mortality was not significantly different. Aggressive treatment of pelvic bone fractures is important regardless of the fracture type, and efforts to reduce infection are important in open pelvic bone fractures.
Summary
Review Article
Delayed union of a pediatric lunate fracture in the United Kingdom: a case report and a review of current concepts of non-scaphoid pediatric carpal fractures
Timothy P. Davis, Elizabeth Headon, Rebecca Morgan, Ashley I. Simpson
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):315-321.   Published online December 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0038
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Pediatric carpal fractures are rare and often difficult to detect. This paper reviews the current literature on pediatric non-scaphoid carpal fractures, with a case report of a lunate fracture associated with a distal radius and ulnar styloid fracture, managed nonoperatively in a 12-year-old boy. There is lack of consensus regarding the management of these fractures due to the low number of reported cases. A frequent lack of long-term follow-up limits our understanding of the outcomes, but good outcomes have been reported for both nonoperative and operative management. This case report brings attention to the current time period for the definition of delayed union in pediatric carpal fractures, and emphasizes the need for prolonged follow-up for the detection of delayed complications leading to functional impairment.
Summary
Original Articles
A decade of treating traumatic sternal fractures in a single-center experience in Korea: a retrospective cohort study
Na Hyeon Lee, Seon Hee Kim, Jae Hun Kim, Ho Hyun Kim, Sang Bong Lee, Chan Ik Park, Gil Hwan Kim, Dong Yeon Ryu, Sun Hyun Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):362-368.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0027
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Clinical reports on treatment outcomes of sternal fractures are lacking. This study details the clinical features, treatment approaches, and outcomes related to traumatic sternal fractures over a 10-year period at a single institution.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients admitted to a regional trauma center between January 2012 and December 2021. Among 7,918 patients with chest injuries, 266 were diagnosed with traumatic sternal fractures. Patient data were collected, including demographics, injury mechanisms, severity, associated injuries, sternal fracture characteristics, hospital stay duration, mortality, respiratory complications, and surgical details. Surgical indications encompassed emergency cases involving intrathoracic injuries, unstable fractures, severe dislocations, flail chest, malunion, and persistent high-grade pain.
Results
Of 266 patients with traumatic sternal fractures, 260 were included; 98 underwent surgical treatment for sternal fractures, while 162 were managed conservatively. Surgical indications ranged from intrathoracic organ or blood vessel injuries necessitating thoracotomy to unstable fractures with severe dislocations. Factors influencing surgical treatment included flail motion and rib fracture. The median length of intensive care unit stay was 5.4 days (interquartile range [IQR], 1.5–18.0 days) for the nonsurgery group and 8.6 days (IQR, 3.3–23.6 days) for the surgery group. The median length of hospital stay was 20.9 days (IQR, 9.3–48.3 days) for the nonsurgery group and 27.5 days (IQR, 17.0 to 58.0 days) for the surgery group. The between-group differences were not statistically significant. Surgical interventions were successful, with stable bone union and minimal complications. Flail motion in the presence of rib fracture was a crucial consideration for surgical intervention.
Conclusions
Surgical treatment recommendations for sternal fractures vary based on flail chest presence, displacement degree, and rib fracture. Surgery is recommended for patients with offset-type sternal fractures with rib and segmental sternal fractures. Surgical intervention led to stable bone union and minimal complications.
Summary
Clinical characteristics of patients with the hardware failure after surgical stabilization of rib fractures in Korea: a case series
Na Hyeon Lee, Sun Hyun Kim, Seon Hee Kim, Dong Yeon Ryu, Sang Bong Lee, Chan Ik Park, Hohyun Kim, Gil Hwan Kim, Youngwoong Kim, Hyun Min Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):196-205.   Published online September 5, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0026
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) is widely used in patients with flail chests, and several studies have reported the efficacy of SSRF even in multiple rib fractures. However, few reports have discussed the hardware failure (HF) of implanted plates. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with HF after SSRF and further investigate the related factors.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent SSRF for multiple rib fractures at a level I trauma center in Korea between January 2014 and January 2021. We defined HF as the unintentional loosening of screws, dislocation, or breakage of the implanted plates. The baseline characteristics, surgical outcomes, and types of HF were assessed.
Results
During the study period, 728 patients underwent SSRF, of whom 80 (10.9%) were diagnosed with HF. The mean age of HF patients was 56.5±13.6 years, and 66 (82.5%) were men. There were 59 cases (73.8%) of screw loosening, 21 (26.3%) of plate breakage, 17 (21.3%) of screw migration, and seven (8.8%) of plate dislocation. Nine patients (11.3%) experienced wound infection, and 35 patients (43.8%) experienced chronic pain. A total of 21 patients (26.3%) underwent reoperation for plate removal. The patients in the reoperation group were significantly younger, had fewer fractures and plates, underwent costal fixation, and had a longer follow-up. There were no significant differences in subjective chest symptoms or lung capacity.
Conclusions
HF after SSRF occurred in 10.9% of the cases, and screw loosening was the most common. Further longitudinal studies are needed to identify risk factors for SSRF failure.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Komplikationen nach operativer vs. konservativer Versorgung des schweren Thoraxtraumas
    Lars Becker, Marcel Dudda, Christof Schreyer
    Die Unfallchirurgie.2024; 127(3): 204.     CrossRef
Case Report
Three-column reconstruction through the posterior approach alone for the treatment of a severe lumbar burst fracture: a case report
Woo Seok Kim, Tae Seok Jeong, Woo Kyung Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):290-294.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0075
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Generally, patients with severe burst fractures, instability, or neurological deficits require surgical treatment. In most cases, circumferential reconstruction is performed. Surgical methods for three-column reconstruction include anterior, lateral, and posterior approaches. In cases involving an anterior or lateral approach, collaboration with general or thoracic surgeons may be necessary because the adjacent anatomical structures are unfamiliar to spinal surgeons. Risks include vascular or lumbar plexus injuries and cage displacement, and in most cases, additional posterior fusion surgery is required. However, the posterior approach is the most common and anatomically familiar approach for surgeons performing spinal surgery. We present a case in which three-column reconstruction was performed using only the posterior approach to treat a patient with a severe lumbar burst fracture.
Summary
Original Article
Thoracolumbar spine fracture patterns, etiologies, and treatment modalities in Jordan
Ahmad Almigdad, Sattam Alazaydeh, Mohammad Bani Mustafa, Mu'men Alshawish, Anas Al Abdallat
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(2):98-104.   Published online April 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0068
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Spine fractures are a significant cause of long-term disability and socioeconomic burden. The incidence of spine fractures tends to increase with age, decreased bone density, and fall risk. In this study, we evaluated thoracolumbar fractures at a tertiary hospital in Jordan regarding their frequency, etiology, patterns, and treatment modalities.
Methods
The clinical and radiological records of 469 patients with thoracolumbar fractures admitted to the Royal Medical Services from July 2018 to August 2022 were evaluated regarding patients’ age, sex, mechanism of injury, fracture level and pattern, and treatment modalities.
Results
The mean age of patients was 51.24±20.22 years, and men represented 52.3%. Compression injuries accounted for 97.2% of thoracolumbar fractures, and the thoracolumbar junction was the most common fracture location. Falling from the ground level was the most common mechanism and accounted for half of the injuries. Associated neurological injuries were identified in 3.8% of patients and were more common in younger patients. Pathological fractures were found in 12.4% and were more prevalent among elderly patients and women.
Conclusions
Traffic accidents and falling from height were the most common causes of spine fractures in patients younger than 40. However, 70% of spine fractures in women were caused by simple falls, reflecting the high prevalence of osteoporosis among women and the elderly. Therefore, traffic and work safety measures, as well as home safety measures and osteoporosis treatment for the elderly, should be recommended to reduce the risk of spine fractures.
Summary
Case Report
Removal of broken syndesmotic screw with minimal bone defects in Korea: a case report
Min Gyu Kyung, Chulhee Park
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):265-268.   Published online December 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0067
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Ankle fractures with syndesmotic injuries often require fixation, where metal screw fixation is a popular method. However, as the patient begins weight-bearing, most syndesmotic screws tend to loosen or break, and removal of such screws has been challenging for the surgeons, as the available techniques require predrilling or trephination and are associated with risks of bone damage. This study presents a case with technical tip for the removal of broken tricortical-fixed non-cannulated syndesmotic screws. It implements the generation of a small cortical window in the medial distal tibia and the use of pliers to engage the screw tip and remove through the medial side. The technique presented in the current study overcomes these limitations and facilitates minimal bone damage and reduced exposure to radiation.
Summary
Original Article
Outcomes after rib fractures: more complex than a single number
Kristin P. Colling, Tyler Goettl, Melissa L. Harry
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(4):268-276.   Published online August 5, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0096
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Rib fractures are common injuries that can lead to morbidity and mortality.
Methods
Data on all patients with rib fractures admitted to a single trauma center between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2018 were reviewed.
Results
A total of 1,671 admissions for rib fracture were examined. Patients’ median age was 57 years, the median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 14, and the median number of fractured ribs was three. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4%. Age, the number of rib fractures, and Charlson Comorbidity Index scores were poor predictors of mortality, while the ISS was a slightly better predictor, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values of 0.60, 0.55, 0.58, and 0.74, respectively. Multivariate regression showed that age, ISS, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score, but not the number of rib fractures, were associated with significantly elevated adjusted odds ratios for mortality (1.03, 1.14, and 1.28, respectively).
Conclusions
Age, ISS, and comorbidities were independently associated with the risk of mortality; however, they were not accurate predictors of death. The factors associated with rib fracture mortality are complex and cannot be explained by a single variable. Interventions to improve outcomes must be multifaceted.
Summary
Case Report
Humeral intramedullary nail bending following trauma: a case report
Siem A. Willems, Alexander P. A. Greeven
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(1):65-69.   Published online June 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The surgical approach for humeral implant failure can be challenging due to neurovascular anatomy and the possible necessity of osteosynthesis removal. We present a rare case of humeral nail bending after secondary trauma in a patient with preexistent nonunion of the humerus after intramedullary nailing. During revision surgery, the nail was sawed in half and the distal part was removed, followed by plate osteosynthesis with cable fixation to achieve absolute stability. The patient regained a full range of motion 1 year after surgery, and complete healing of the fracture was seen on imaging.
Summary
Original Article
National utilization of rib fracture fixation in the geriatric population in the United States
Jennifer M. Brewer, Leah Aakjar, Kelsey Sullivan, Vijay Jayaraman, Manuel Moutinho, Elan Jeremitsky, Andrew R. Doben
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):173-180.   Published online May 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0076
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The use of surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) has steadily increased over the past decade. Recent literature suggests that a larger population may benefit from SSRF, and that the geriatric population—as the highest-risk population—may receive the greatest improvement from these interventions. We sought to determine the overall utilization of SSRF in the United States.
Methods
The National Trauma Database was analyzed between 2016 and 2017. The inclusion criteria were all patients ≥65 years old with rib fractures. We further stratified these patients according to age (65–79 vs. ≥80 years old), the presence of coding for flail chest, three or more rib fractures, and intervention (surgical vs. nonoperative management). The main outcomes were surgical interventions, mortality, pneumonia, length of stay, intensive care unit length of stay, ventilator use, and tracheostomy.
Results
Overall, 93,638 patients were identified. SSRF was performed in 992 patients. Patients who underwent SSRF had improved mortality in the 65 to 79 age group, regardless of the number of ribs fractured. We identified 92,637 patients in the age group of 65 to 79 years old who did not undergo SSRF. This represents an additional 20,000 patients annually who may benefit from SSRF.
Conclusions
By conservative standards and the well-established Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma clinical practice guidelines, SSRF is underutilized. Our data suggest that SSRF may be very beneficial for the geriatric population, specifically those aged 65 to 79 years with any rib fractures. We hypothesize that roughly 20,000 additional cases will meet the inclusion criteria for SSRF each year. It is therefore imperative that we train acute care surgeons in this skill set.
Summary
Case Reports
Management of a traumatic anorectal full-thickness laceration: a case report
Laura Fortuna, Andrea Bottari, Riccardo Somigli, Sandro Giannessi
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):215-218.   Published online May 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0049
  • 2,221 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The rectum is the least frequently injured organ in trauma, with an incidence of about 1% to 3% in trauma cases involving civilians. Most rectal injuries are caused by gunshot wounds, blunt force trauma, and stab wounds. A 46-year-old male patient was crushed between two vehicles while he was working. He was hemodynamically unstable, and the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma showed hemoperitoneum and hemoretroperitoneum; therefore, damage control surgery with pelvic packing was performed. A subsequent whole-body computed tomography scan showed a displaced pelvic bone and sacrum fracture. There was evidence of an anorectal full-thickness laceration and urethral laceration. In second-look surgery performed 48 hours later, the pelvis was stabilized with external fixators, and it was decided to proceed with loop sigmoid colostomy. A tractioned rectal probe with an internal balloon was positioned in order to approach the flaps of the rectal wall laceration. On postoperative day 13, a radiological examination with endoluminal contrast injected from the stoma after removal of the balloon was performed and showed no evidence of extraluminal leak. Rectosigmoidoscopy, rectal manometry, anal sphincter electromyography, and trans-stomic transit examinations showed normal findings, indicating that it was appropriate to proceed with the closure of the colostomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. The optimal management for extraperitoneal penetrating rectal injuries continues to evolve. Primary repair with fecal diversion is the mainstay of treatment, and a conservative approach to rectal lacerations with an internal balloon in a rectal probe could provide a possibility for healing with a lower risk of complications.
Summary
Penetrating sacral injury with a metallic pipe: a case report and literature review
Mahnjeong Ha, Kyoung Hyup Nam, Jae Hun Kim, In Ho Han
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):131-138.   Published online May 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0063
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Other than gunshot injuries, sacral penetrating injuries with a foreign body exiting to the other side are extremely rare. We encountered a case of sacral injury in which a long metallic pipe penetrated from the anus into the lower back of a patient. Since the pelvis contains various organs, management of a penetrating injury requires multidisciplinary treatment involving several medical specialties. Due to the infrequency of this type of injury, there are no definitive guidelines for effective management. We described our experience surgically treating a sacral penetrating injury and conducted a literature review. On this basis, we suggest a surgical strategy for treating this type of injury.
Summary
Bilateral foot drop caused by T12 infectious spondylitis after vertebroplasty: a case report
Dong Hwan Kim, Yong Beom Shin, Mahnjeong Ha, Byung Chul Kim, In Ho Han, Kyoung Hyup Nam
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(1):56-60.   Published online March 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0083
  • 2,763 View
  • 71 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The most common cause of foot drop is lumbar degenerative disc herniation, particularly at L4/5. We present a rare case of spinal cord injury accompanied by a thoracolumbar lesion that presented with bilateral foot drop. A 69-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset severe bilateral leg pain and bilateral foot drop. Radiologic findings revealed T12 spondylitis compressing the conus medullaris. He had undergone vertebroplasty for a T12 compression fracture after a fall 6 months before. A physical examination showed bilateral foot drop, paresthesia of both L5 dermatomes, increased deep tendon reflex, and a positive Babinski sign. An acute bilateral L5 root lesion and a conus medullaris lesion were suspected based on electromyography. A surgical procedure was done for decompression and reconstruction. After the operation, bilateral lower extremity muscle strength recovered to a good grade from the trace grade, and the patient could walk without a cane. The current case is a very rare report of bilateral foot drop associated with T12 infectious spondylitis after vertebroplasty. It is essential to keep in mind that lesions of the thoracolumbar junction can cause atypical neurological symptoms. Furthermore, understanding the conus medullaris and nerve root anatomy at the T12–L1 level will be helpful for treating patients with atypical neurological symptoms.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Evaluating Acute Bilateral Foot Drop: A Case Report
    Arsh N Patel, Colby Kihara, Carter Gay, Katie Oakley, P.J. Reddy
    Cureus.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Transosseous Tie Fixation Using Krackow Sutures and Bone Tunnels in a Comminuted Fracture of the Upper Pole of the Patella: A Case Report
Jong Seok Baik
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):305-308.   Published online June 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0083
  • 3,030 View
  • 73 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Comminuted fractures of the patella mostly occur at the inferior pole and require appropriate reduction and fixation to restore the extensor mechanism. Conventional methods such as tension-band wiring are not enough to gain proper fixation strength. Numerous methods have been reported, including circumferential cerclage wiring, osteosynthesis, and suture anchors depending on the fracture pattern. Herein, the author reports a relatively rare case of a comminuted fracture of the upper pole of the patella, for which we used augmented Krackow sutures in the quadriceps and fixation with tying of the suture limbs through patellar bone tunnels. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of reduction and extensor mechanism recovery.

Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury