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Volume 37(1); March 2024
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Review Article
Biomechanics of stabbing knife attack for trauma surgeons in Korea: a narrative review
Kun Hwang, Chan Yong Park
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):1-5.   Published online January 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0057
  • 1,548 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of this paper was to review the biomechanics of knife injuries, including those that occur during stabbing rampages. In knife stab attacks, axial force and energy were found to be 1,885 N and 69 J, respectively. The mean velocity of a stabbing motion has been reported to range from 5 to 10 m/sec, with knife motions occurring between 0.62 and 1.07 seconds. This speed appears to surpass the defensive capabilities of unarmed, ordinarily trained law enforcement officers. Therefore, it is advisable to maintain a minimum distance of more than an arm's length from an individual visibly armed with a knife. In training for knife defense, particularly in preparation for close-quarter knife attacks, this timing should be kept in mind. Self-inflicted stab wounds exhibited a higher proportion of wounds to the neck and abdomen than assault wounds. Injuries from assault wounds presented a higher Injury Severity Score, but more procedures were performed on self-inflicted stab wounds. Wound characteristics are not different between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal self-wrist cutting injuries. Consequently, trauma surgeons cannot determine a patient's suicidal intent based solely on the characteristics of the wound. In Korea, percent of usage of lethal weapon is increasing. In violence as well as murders, the most frequently used weapon is knife. In the crimes using knife, 4.8% of victims are killed. Therefore, the provision of prehospital care by an emergency medical technician is crucial.
Summary
Original Articles
Comparison of mortality between open and closed pelvic bone fractures in Korea using 1:2 propensity score matching: a single-center retrospective study
Jaeri Yoo, Donghwan Choi, Byung Hee Kang
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):6-12.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0063
  • 1,167 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Open pelvic bone fractures are relatively rare and are considered more severe than closed fractures. This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of open and closed severe pelvic bone fractures.
Methods
Patients with severe pelvic bone fractures (pelvic Abbreviated Injury Scale score, ≥4) admitted at a single level I trauma center between 2016 and 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients aged <16 years and those with incomplete medical records were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into open and closed fracture groups, and their demographics, treatment, and clinical outcomes were compared before and after 1:2 propensity score matching.
Results
Of the 321 patients, 24 were in the open fracture group and 297 were in the closed fracture group. The open fracture group had more infections (37.5% vs. 5.7%, P<0.001) and longer stays in the intensive care unit (median 11 days, interquartile range [IQR] 6–30 days vs. median 5 days, IQR 2–13 days; P=0.005), but mortality did not show a statistically significant difference (20.8% vs. 15.5%, P=0.559) before matching. After 1:2 propensity score matching, the infection rate was significantly higher in the open fracture group (37.5% vs. 6.3%, P=0.002), whereas the length of intensive care unit stay (median 11 days, IQR 6–30 days vs. median 8 days, IQR 4–19 days; P=0.312) and mortality (20.8% vs. 27.1%, P=0.564) were not significantly different.
Conclusions
The open pelvic fracture group had more infections than the closed pelvic fracture group, but mortality was not significantly different. Aggressive treatment of pelvic bone fractures is important regardless of the fracture type, and efforts to reduce infection are important in open pelvic bone fractures.
Summary
Usefulness of presepsin as a prognostic indicator for patients with trauma in the emergency department in Korea: a retrospective study
Si Woo Kim, Jung-Youn Kim, Young-Hoon Yoon, Sung Joon Park, Bo Sun Shim
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):13-19.   Published online January 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0061
  • 1,056 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Trauma is an important public health concern, and it is important to increase the survival rate of patients with trauma and enable them to return to society in a better condition. Initial treatment in the emergency department (ED) is closely associated with the prognosis of patients with trauma. However, studies regarding laboratory biomarker tests that can help predict the prognosis of trauma patients are limited. Presepsin is a novel biomarker of inflammation that can predict a poor prognosis in patients with sepsis. This study aimed to determine whether presepsin could be used as a prognostic indicator in patients with polytrauma.
Methods
The study included patients with trauma who had visited a single regional ED from November 2021 to January 2023. Patients who had laboratory tests in the ED were included and analyzed retrospectively through chart review. Age, sex, injury mechanism, vital signs, surgery, the outcome of ED treatment (admission, discharge, transfer, or death), and trauma scores were analyzed.
Results
Overall, 550 trauma patients were enrolled; 59.1% were men, and the median age was 64 years (interquartile range, 48.8–79.0 years). Patients in a hypotensive state (systolic blood pressure, <90 mmHg; n=39) had higher presepsin levels (1,061.5±2,522.7 pg/mL) than those in a nonhypotensive state (n=511, 545.7±688.4 pg/mL, P<0.001). Patients hospitalized after ED treatment had the highest presepsin levels (660.9 pg/mL), followed by those who died (652.0 pg/mL), were transferred to other hospitals (514.9 pg/mL), and returned home (448.0 pg/mL, P=0.041).
Conclusions
Serum presepsin levels were significantly higher in trauma patients in a hypotensive state than in those in a nonhypotensive state. Additionally, serum presepsin levels were the highest in hospitalized patients with trauma, followed by those who died, were transferred to other hospitals, and returned home.
Summary
Emergency department laparotomy for patients with severe abdominal trauma: a retrospective study at a single regional trauma center in Korea
Yu Jin Lee, Soon Tak Jeong, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Sung Jin Park, Jihun Gwak, Wu Seong Kang
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):20-27.   Published online January 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0072
  • 1,131 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Severe abdominal injuries often require immediate clinical assessment and surgical intervention to prevent life-threatening complications. In Jeju Regional Trauma Center, we have instituted a protocol for emergency department (ED) laparotomy at the trauma bay. We investigated the mortality and time taken from admission to ED laparotomy.
Methods
We reviewed the data recorded in our center’s trauma database between January 2020 and December 2022 and identified patients who underwent laparotomy because of abdominal trauma. Laparotomies that were performed at the trauma bay or the ED were classified as ED laparotomy, whereas those performed in the operating room (OR) were referred to as OR laparotomy. In cases that required expeditious hemostasis, ED laparotomy was performed appropriately.
Results
From January 2020 to December 2022, 105 trauma patients admitted to our hospital underwent emergency laparotomy. Of these patients, six (5.7%) underwent ED laparotomy. ED laparotomy was associated with a mortality rate of 66.7% (four of six patients), which was significantly higher than that of OR laparotomy (17.1%, 18 of 99 patients, P=0.006). All the patients who received ED laparotomy also underwent damage control laparotomy. The time between admission to the first laparotomy was significantly shorter in the ED laparotomy group (28.5 minutes; interquartile range [IQR], 14–59 minutes) when compared with the OR laparotomy group (104 minutes; IQR, 88–151 minutes; P <0.001). The two patients who survived after ED laparotomy had massive mesenteric bleeding, which was successfully ligated. The other four patients, who had liver laceration, kidney rupture, spleen injury, and pancreas avulsion, succumbed to the injuries.
Conclusions
Although ED laparotomy was associated with a higher mortality rate, the time between admission and ED laparotomy was markedly shorter than for OR laparotomy. Notably, major mesenteric hemorrhages were effectively controlled through ED laparotomy.
Summary
Angioembolization performed by trauma surgeons for trauma patients: is it feasible in Korea? A retrospective study
Soonseong Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Soon Tak Jeong, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Sung Jin Park, Jihun Gwak, Wu Seong Kang
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):28-36.   Published online January 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0076
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Recent advancements in interventional radiology have made angioembolization an invaluable modality in trauma care. Angioembolization is typically performed by interventional radiologists. In this study, we aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of emergency angioembolization performed by trauma surgeons.
Methods
We identified trauma patients who underwent emergency angiography due to significant trauma-related hemorrhage between January 2020 and June 2023 at our trauma center. Until May 2022, two dedicated interventional radiologists performed emergency angiography at our center. However, since June 2022, a trauma surgeon with a background and experience in vascular surgery has performed emergency angiography for trauma-related bleeding. The indications for trauma surgeon–performed angiography included significant hemorrhage from liver injury, pelvic injury, splenic injury, or kidney injury. We assessed the angiography results according to the operator of the initial angiographic procedure. The term “failure of the first angioembolization” was defined as rebleeding from any cause, encompassing patients who underwent either re-embolization due to rebleeding or surgery due to rebleeding.
Results
No significant differences were found between the interventional radiologists and the trauma surgeon in terms of re-embolization due to rebleeding, surgery due to rebleeding, or the overall failure rate of the first angioembolization. Mortality and morbidity rates were also similar between the two groups. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis evaluating failure after the first angioembolization, pelvic embolization emerged as the sole significant risk factor (adjusted odds ratio, 3.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–10.33; P=0.041). Trauma surgeon–performed angioembolization was not deemed a significant risk factor in the multivariable logistic regression model.
Conclusions
Trauma surgeons, when equipped with the necessary endovascular skills and experience, can safely perform angioembolization. To further improve quality control, an enhanced training curriculum for trauma surgeons is warranted.
Summary
Radiologic assessment of the optimal point for tube thoracostomy using the sternum as a landmark: a computed tomography‐based analysis
Jaeik Jang, Jae-Hyug Woo, Mina Lee, Woo Sung Choi, Yong Su Lim, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi, Sung Youl Hyun
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):37-47.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0058
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
This study aimed at developing a novel tube thoracostomy technique using the sternum, a fixed anatomical structure, as an indicator to reduce the possibility of incorrect chest tube positioning and complications in patients with chest trauma.
Methods
This retrospective study analyzed the data of 184 patients with chest trauma who were aged ≥18 years, visited a single regional trauma center in Korea between April and June 2022, and underwent chest computed tomography (CT) with their arms down. The conventional gold standard, 5th intercostal space (ICS) method, was compared to the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum method by analyzing CT images.
Results
When virtual tube thoracostomy routes were drawn at the mid-axillary line at the 5th ICS level, 150 patients (81.5%) on the right side and 179 patients (97.3%) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. However, at the lower 1/2 of the sternum level, 171 patients (92.9%, P<0.001) on the right and 182 patients (98.9%, P= 0.250) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. At the 5th ICS level, 129 patients (70.1%) on the right and 156 patients (84.8%) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Alternatively, at the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum level, 139 (75.5%, P=0.185), 49 (26.6%, P<0.001), and 10 (5.4%, P<0.001), respectively, on the right, and 146 (79.3%, P=0.041), 69 (37.5%, P<0.001), and 16 (8.7%, P<0.001) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Compared to the conventional 5th ICS method, the sternum 1/2 method had a safety zone prediction sensitivity of 90.0% to 90.7%, and 97.3% to 100% sensitivity for not passing the diaphragm.
Conclusions
Using the sternum length as a tube thoracostomy indicator might be feasible.
Summary
Chest wall injury fracture patterns are associated with different mechanisms of injury: a retrospective review study in the United States
Jennifer M. Brewer, Owen P. Karsmarski, Jeremy Fridling, T. Russell Hill, Chasen J Greig, Sarah Posillico, Carol McGuiness, Erin McLaughlin, Stephanie C. Montgomery, Manuel Moutinho, Ronald Gross, Evert A. Eriksson, Andrew R. Doben
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):48-59.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0065
  • 1,015 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Research on rib fracture management has exponentially increased. Predicting fracture patterns based on the mechanism of injury (MOI) and other possible correlations may improve resource allocation and injury prevention strategies. The Chest Injury International Database (CIID) is the largest prospective repository of the operative and nonoperative management of patients with severe chest wall trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the MOI is associated with the resulting rib fracture patterns. We hypothesized that specific MOIs would be associated with distinct rib fracture patterns.
Methods
The CIID was queried to analyze fracture patterns based on the MOI. Patients were stratified by MOI: falls, motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), motorcycle collisions (MCCs), automobile-pedestrian collisions, and bicycle collisions. Fracture locations, associated injuries, and patient-specific variables were recorded. Heat maps were created to display the fracture incidence by rib location.
Results
The study cohort consisted of 1,121 patients with a median RibScore of 2 (0–3) and 9,353 fractures. The average age was 57±20 years, and 64% of patients were male. By MOI, the number of patients and fractures were as follows: falls (474 patients, 3,360 fractures), MVCs (353 patients, 3,268 fractures), MCCs (165 patients, 1,505 fractures), automobile-pedestrian collisions (70 patients, 713 fractures), and bicycle collisions (59 patients, 507 fractures). The most commonly injured rib was the sixth rib, and the most common fracture location was lateral. Statistically significant differences in the location and patterns of fractures were identified comparing each MOI, except for MCCs versus bicycle collisions.
Conclusions
Different mechanisms of injury result in distinct rib fracture patterns. These different patterns should be considered in the workup and management of patients with thoracic injuries. Given these significant differences, future studies should account for both fracture location and the MOI to better define what populations benefit from surgical versus nonoperative management.
Summary
Changes in interpersonal violence and utilization of trauma recovery services at an urban trauma center in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective, comparative study
Kevin Y. Zhu, Kristie J. Sun, Mary A. Breslin, Mark Kalina Jr., Tyler Moon, Ryan Furdock, Heather A. Vallier
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):60-66.   Published online February 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0064
  • 1,112 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study investigated changes in interpersonal violence and utilization of trauma recovery services during the COVID-19 pandemic. At an urban level I trauma center, trauma recovery services (TRS) provide education, counseling, peer support, and coordination of rehabilitation and recovery to address social and mental health needs. The COVID-19 pandemic prompted considerable changes in hospital services and increases in interpersonal victimization.
Methods
A retrospective analysis was conducted between September 6, 2018 and December 20, 2020 for 1,908 victim-of-crime patients, including 574 victims of interpersonal violence. Outcomes included length of stay associated with initial TRS presentation, number of subsequent emergency department visits, number of outpatient appointments, and utilization of specific specialties within the year following the initial traumatic event.
Results
Patients were primarily female (59.4%), single (80.1%), non-Hispanic (86.7%), and Black (59.2%). The mean age was 33.0 years, and 247 patients (49.2%) presented due to physical assault, 132 (26.3%) due to gunshot wounds, and 76 (15.1%) due to sexual assault. The perpetrators were primarily partners (27.9%) or strangers (23.3%). During the study period, 266 patients (mean, 14.9 patients per month) presented before the declaration of COVID-19 as a national emergency on March 13, 2020, while 236 patients (mean, 25.9 patients per month) presented afterward, representing a 74.6% increase in victim-of-crime patients treated. Interactions with TRS decreased during the COVID-19 period, with an average of 3.0 interactions per patient before COVID-19 versus 1.9 after emergency declaration (P<0.01). Similarly, reductions in length of stay were noted; the pre–COVID-19 average was 3.6 days, compared to 2.1 days post–COVID-19 (P=0.01).
Conclusions
While interpersonal violence increased, TRS interactions decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, reflecting interruption of services, COVID-19 precautions, and postponement/cancellation of elective visits. Future direction of hospital policy to enable resource and service delivery to this population, despite internal and external challenges, appears warranted.
Summary
Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in orthopedic trauma patients and a call to implement the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen as a prospective screening protocol in the United States
Victoria J. Nedder, Mary A. Breslin, Vanessa P. Ho, Heather A. Vallier
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):67-73.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0068
  • 1,164 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent and is associated with protracted recovery and worse outcomes after injury. This study compared PTSD prevalence using the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) with the prevalence of PTSD risk using the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen (ITSS).
Methods
Adult trauma patients at a level I trauma center were screened with the PCL-5 (sample 1) at follow-up visits or using the ITSS as inpatients (sample 2).
Results
Sample 1 (n=285) had significantly fewer patients with gunshot wounds than sample 2 (n=45) (8.1% vs. 22.2%, P=0.003), nonsignificantly fewer patients with a fall from a height (17.2% vs. 28.9%, P=0.06), and similar numbers of patients with motor vehicle collision (40.7% vs. 37.8%, P=0.07). Screening was performed at a mean of 153.9 days following injury for sample 1 versus 7.1 days in sample 2. The mean age of the patients in sample 1 was 45.4 years, and the mean age of those in sample 2 was 46.1 years. The two samples had similar proportions of female patients (38.2% vs. 40.0%, P=0.80). The positive screening rate was 18.9% in sample 1 and 40.0% in sample 2 (P=0.001). For specific mechanisms, the positive rates were as follows: motor vehicle collisions, 17.2% in sample 1 and 17.6% in sample 2 (P=1.00); fall from height, 12.2% in sample 1 and 30.8% in sample 2 (P=0.20); and gunshot wounds, 39.1% in sample 1 and 80.0% in sample 2 (P=0.06).
Conclusions
The ITSS was obtained earlier than PCL-5 and may identify PTSD in more orthopedic trauma patients. Differences in the frequency of PTSD may also be related to the screening tool itself, or underlying patient risk factors, such as mechanism of injury, or mental or social health.
Summary
Case Reports
Treatment of a penetrating inferior vena cava injury using doctor-helicopter emergency medical service and direct-to-operating room resuscitation in Korea: a case report
Dongmin Seo, Jieun Kim, Jiwon Kim, Inhae Heo, Jonghwan Moon, Kyoungwon Jung, Hohyung Jung
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):74-78.   Published online January 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0055
  • 1,308 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Inferior vena cava (IVC) injuries can have fatal outcomes and are associated with high mortality rates. Patients with IVC injuries require multiple procedures, including prehospital care, surgical techniques, and postoperative care. We present the case of a 67-year-old woman who stabbed herself in the abdomen with a knife, resulting in an infrarenal IVC injury. We shortened the transfer time by transporting the patient using a helicopter and decided to perform direct-to-operating room resuscitation by a trauma physician in the helicopter. The patient underwent laparotomy with IVC ligation for damage control during the first operation. The second- and third-look operations, including previous suture removal, IVC reconstruction, and IVC thrombectomy, were performed by a trauma surgeon specializing in cardiovascular diseases. The patient was discharged without major complications on the 19th postoperative day with rivaroxaban as an anticoagulant medication. Computed tomography angiography at the outpatient clinic showed that thrombi in the IVC and both iliac veins had been completely removed. Patients with IVC injuries can be effectively treated using a trauma system that includes fast transportation by helicopter, damage control for rapid hemostasis, and expert treatment of IVC injuries.
Summary
Conservative treatment of corpus callosum hemorrhage due to a falling coconut in Indonesia: a case report
Hanan Anwar Rusidi, Ferry Wijanarko
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):79-82.   Published online January 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0052
  • 665 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The potential for traumatic brain injury resulting from falling coconuts is frequently overlooked. These incidents can cause focal lesions in the form of brain hemorrhage. Corpus callosum hemorrhage due to blunt trauma from a falling object is rare and typically associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this report is to detail a case of corpus callosum hemorrhage caused by a coconut fall and to discuss the conservative management approach employed. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of unconsciousness, headache, and expressive aphasia after being struck by a falling coconut. Notably, hemorrhage was detected within the body of the corpus callosum, as revealed by imaging findings. The patient received intensive monitoring and treatment in the intensive care unit, including oxygen therapy, saline infusion, an osmotic diuretic, analgesics, and medication to prevent stress ulcers. The patient demonstrated marked clinical improvement while undergoing conservative treatment. Despite the typically unfavorable prognosis of these rare injuries, our patient exhibited meaningful clinical improvement with conservative treatment. Timely diagnosis and appropriate interventions were crucial in managing the patient’s condition. This report emphasizes the importance of considering traumatic brain injury caused by falling coconuts and highlights the need for further research and awareness in this area.
Summary
Pneumoperitoneum from vaginal cuff dehiscence following blunt trauma in a patient with a history of robotic hysterectomy in Korea: a case report
Byung Hee Kang, Donghwan Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):83-85.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0078
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Pneumoperitoneum usually presents as a surgical emergency, especially in patients with a history of trauma. However, we recently encountered an atypical case of pneumoperitoneum at a hysterectomy site following blunt trauma, indicating that immediate laparotomy may not always be necessary. In this report, we present the case of a 45-year-old woman who was transferred to our trauma center from a local hospital after being involved in a traffic accident the day before. Although she underwent an emergency laparotomy, no bowel perforation was detected. Instead, a rupture was found at the site of a hysterectomy that had been performed 8 months earlier. After repairing the hysterectomy site, the pneumoperitoneum resolved, and the patient was subsequently discharged without further complications.
Summary
Misinterpretation of a skin fold artifact as pneumothorax on the chest x-ray of a trauma patient in Korea: a case report
Yoojin Park, Eun Young Kim, Byungchul Yu, Kunwoo Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):86-88.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0050
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Misinterpreting radiographic findings can lead to unnecessary interventions and potential patient harm. The urgency required when responding to the compromised health of trauma patients can increase the likelihood of misinterpreting chest x-rays in critical situations. We present the case report of a trauma patient whose skin fold artifacts were mistaken for pneumothorax on a follow-up chest x-ray, resulting in unnecessary chest tube insertion. We hope to help others differentiate between skin folds and pneumothorax on the chest x-rays of trauma patients by considering factors such as location, shape, sharpness, and vascular markings.
Summary
Atypical Vancouver B1 periprosthetic fracture of the proximal femur in the United Kingdom: a case report challenged by myeloma, osteoporosis, infection, and recurrent implant failures
Sayantan Saha, Azeem Ahmed, Rama Mohan
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):89-96.   Published online March 18, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0069
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  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The indications for total hip replacement are increasing and not limited to osteoarthritis. Total hip replacement may also be done for trauma and pathological fractures in patients otherwise physiologically fit and active. This trend has led to an inevitable rise in complications such as periprosthetic femoral fracture. Periprosthetic femoral fracture can be challenging due to poor bone quality, osteoporosis, and stress fractures. We present a case of periprosthetic femoral fracture in a 71-year-old woman with some components of an atypical femoral fracture. The fracture was internally fixed but was subsequently complicated by infection, implant failure needing revision, and later stress fracture. She was on a bisphosphonate after her index total hip replacement surgery for an impending pathological left proximal femur fracture, and this may have caused the later stress fracture. Unfortunately, she then experienced implant breakage (nonunion), which was treated with a biplanar locking plate and bone grafting. The patient finally regained her premorbid mobility 13 months after the last surgery and progressed satisfactorily towards bony union.
Summary

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