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“Most viewed” articles are those published within the last 2 years (2022– ). The following are the most frequently accessed articles from Journal of Trauma and Injury.

Review Article
Biomechanics of stabbing knife attack for trauma surgeons in Korea: a narrative review
Kun Hwang, Chan Yong Park
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):1-5.   Published online January 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0057
  • 998 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of this paper was to review the biomechanics of knife injuries, including those that occur during stabbing rampages. In knife stab attacks, axial force and energy were found to be 1,885 N and 69 J, respectively. The mean velocity of a stabbing motion has been reported to range from 5 to 10 m/sec, with knife motions occurring between 0.62 and 1.07 seconds. This speed appears to surpass the defensive capabilities of unarmed, ordinarily trained law enforcement officers. Therefore, it is advisable to maintain a minimum distance of more than an arm's length from an individual visibly armed with a knife. In training for knife defense, particularly in preparation for close-quarter knife attacks, this timing should be kept in mind. Self-inflicted stab wounds exhibited a higher proportion of wounds to the neck and abdomen than assault wounds. Injuries from assault wounds presented a higher Injury Severity Score, but more procedures were performed on self-inflicted stab wounds. Wound characteristics are not different between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal self-wrist cutting injuries. Consequently, trauma surgeons cannot determine a patient's suicidal intent based solely on the characteristics of the wound. In Korea, percent of usage of lethal weapon is increasing. In violence as well as murders, the most frequently used weapon is knife. In the crimes using knife, 4.8% of victims are killed. Therefore, the provision of prehospital care by an emergency medical technician is crucial.
Summary
Case Report
Successful minimally invasive management using transcatheter arterial embolization in a hemodynamically stable elderly patient with mesenteric vascular injury in a hybrid emergency room system in Korea: a case report
So Ra Ahn, Joo Hyun Lee, Sang Hyun Seo, Chan Yong Park
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):435-440.   Published online July 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0018
  • 1,632 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Mesenteric injury occurs rarely in cases associated with blunt abdominal trauma. Despite its low incidence, mesenteric injury can lead to fatal outcomes such as hypovolemic shock due to hemoperitoneum or sepsis due to intestinal ischemia, or perforation-related peritonitis. For mesenteric injuries, especially those involving massive bleeding, intestinal ischemia, and perforation, the standard treatment is surgery. However, in the case of operative management, it should be borne in mind that there is a possibility of complications and mortality during and after surgery. The usefulness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is well known in solid organs but is controversial for mesenteric injury. We present a 75-year-old man with mesenteric injury due to blunt abdominal trauma. Initial abdominal computed tomography showed no hemoperitoneum, but a mesenteric contusion and pseudoaneurysm with a diameter of 17 mm were observed near the origin of the superior mesenteric artery. Since there were no findings requiring emergency surgery such as free air or intestinal ischemia, it was decided to perform nonoperative management with TAE using microcoils in hybrid emergency room system. TAE was performed successfully, and there were no complications such as bleeding, bowel ischemia, or delayed bowel perforation. He was discharged on the 23rd day after admission with percutaneous catheter drainage for drainage of mesenteric hematoma. The authors believe that treatment with TAE for highly selected elderly patients with mesenteric injuries has the positive aspect of minimally invasive management, considering the burden of general anesthesia and the various avoidable intraoperative and postoperative complications.
Summary
Original Articles
Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in orthopedic trauma patients and a call to implement the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen as a prospective screening protocol in the United States
Victoria J. Nedder, Mary A. Breslin, Vanessa P. Ho, Heather A. Vallier
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):67-73.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0068
  • 650 View
  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent and is associated with protracted recovery and worse outcomes after injury. This study compared PTSD prevalence using the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) with the prevalence of PTSD risk using the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen (ITSS).
Methods
Adult trauma patients at a level I trauma center were screened with the PCL-5 (sample 1) at follow-up visits or using the ITSS as inpatients (sample 2).
Results
Sample 1 (n=285) had significantly fewer patients with gunshot wounds than sample 2 (n=45) (8.1% vs. 22.2%, P=0.003), nonsignificantly fewer patients with a fall from a height (17.2% vs. 28.9%, P=0.06), and similar numbers of patients with motor vehicle collision (40.7% vs. 37.8%, P=0.07). Screening was performed at a mean of 153.9 days following injury for sample 1 versus 7.1 days in sample 2. The mean age of the patients in sample 1 was 45.4 years, and the mean age of those in sample 2 was 46.1 years. The two samples had similar proportions of female patients (38.2% vs. 40.0%, P=0.80). The positive screening rate was 18.9% in sample 1 and 40.0% in sample 2 (P=0.001). For specific mechanisms, the positive rates were as follows: motor vehicle collisions, 17.2% in sample 1 and 17.6% in sample 2 (P=1.00); fall from height, 12.2% in sample 1 and 30.8% in sample 2 (P=0.20); and gunshot wounds, 39.1% in sample 1 and 80.0% in sample 2 (P=0.06).
Conclusions
The ITSS was obtained earlier than PCL-5 and may identify PTSD in more orthopedic trauma patients. Differences in the frequency of PTSD may also be related to the screening tool itself, or underlying patient risk factors, such as mechanism of injury, or mental or social health.
Summary
Quality monitoring of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta using cumulative sum analysis in Korea: a case series
Hyunsik Choi, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Wu Seong Kang
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(2):78-86.   Published online December 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0069
  • 2,105 View
  • 46 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a state-of-the-art lifesaving procedure. However, due to its high mortality and morbidity, including ischemia and reperfusion injury, well-trained medical staff and effective systems are needed. This study was conducted to investigate the learning curve for REBOA.
Methods
To monitor this learning curve, we used cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis and graphs of mortality and aortic occlusion time within 60, 90, and 120 minutes for consecutive patients. The procedures performed between July 2017 and June 2021 were divided into pre-trauma center (pre-TC; July 2017–February 2020) and TC (February 2020–June 2021) periods.
Results
REBOA was performed for 31 consecutive patients with trauma. The pre-TC (n=12) and TC (n=19) periods did not differ significantly with regard to Injury Severity Score, age, injury mechanism, initial systolic blood pressure, prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), or CPR in the emergency department. At the 17th consecutive patient during the TC period, CUSUM failure graphs for mortality and aortic occlusion time exhibited a downward inflection, indicating an improvement in performance.
Conclusions
The mortality and aortic occlusion time of REBOA improved, and these parameters can be monitored using CUSUM analysis at the hospital level.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Emergency department laparotomy for patients with severe abdominal trauma: a retrospective study at a single regional trauma center in Korea
    Yu Jin Lee, Soon Tak Jeong, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Sung Jin Park, Jihun Gwak, Wu Seong Kang
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2024; 37(1): 20.     CrossRef
  • Nonselective versus Selective Angioembolization for Trauma Patients with Pelvic Injuries Accompanied by Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis
    Hyunseok Jang, Soon Tak Jeong, Yun Chul Park, Wu Seong Kang
    Medicina.2023; 59(8): 1492.     CrossRef
Changes in interpersonal violence and utilization of trauma recovery services at an urban trauma center in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective, comparative study
Kevin Y. Zhu, Kristie J. Sun, Mary A. Breslin, Mark Kalina Jr., Tyler Moon, Ryan Furdock, Heather A. Vallier
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):60-66.   Published online February 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0064
  • 609 View
  • 6 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study investigated changes in interpersonal violence and utilization of trauma recovery services during the COVID-19 pandemic. At an urban level I trauma center, trauma recovery services (TRS) provide education, counseling, peer support, and coordination of rehabilitation and recovery to address social and mental health needs. The COVID-19 pandemic prompted considerable changes in hospital services and increases in interpersonal victimization.
Methods
A retrospective analysis was conducted between September 6, 2018 and December 20, 2020 for 1,908 victim-of-crime patients, including 574 victims of interpersonal violence. Outcomes included length of stay associated with initial TRS presentation, number of subsequent emergency department visits, number of outpatient appointments, and utilization of specific specialties within the year following the initial traumatic event.
Results
Patients were primarily female (59.4%), single (80.1%), non-Hispanic (86.7%), and Black (59.2%). The mean age was 33.0 years, and 247 patients (49.2%) presented due to physical assault, 132 (26.3%) due to gunshot wounds, and 76 (15.1%) due to sexual assault. The perpetrators were primarily partners (27.9%) or strangers (23.3%). During the study period, 266 patients (mean, 14.9 patients per month) presented before the declaration of COVID-19 as a national emergency on March 13, 2020, while 236 patients (mean, 25.9 patients per month) presented afterward, representing a 74.6% increase in victim-of-crime patients treated. Interactions with TRS decreased during the COVID-19 period, with an average of 3.0 interactions per patient before COVID-19 versus 1.9 after emergency declaration (P<0.01). Similarly, reductions in length of stay were noted; the pre–COVID-19 average was 3.6 days, compared to 2.1 days post–COVID-19 (P=0.01).
Conclusions
While interpersonal violence increased, TRS interactions decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, reflecting interruption of services, COVID-19 precautions, and postponement/cancellation of elective visits. Future direction of hospital policy to enable resource and service delivery to this population, despite internal and external challenges, appears warranted.
Summary
Distally based lateral supramalleolar flap for reconstructing distal foot defects in India: a prospective cohort study
Raja Kiran Kumar Goud, Palukuri Lakshmi, Sanujit Pawde, Madhulika Dharmapuri, Swati Sankar, Sandeep Reddy Chintha
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):217-223.   Published online September 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0005
  • 1,312 View
  • 60 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Defects involving the ankle and foot are often the result of road traffic accidents. Many such defects are composite and require a flap for coverage, which is a significant challenge for reconstructive surgeons. Various locoregional options, such as reverse sural artery, reverse peroneal artery, peroneus brevis muscle, perforator-based, and fasciocutaneous flaps, have been used, but each flap type has limitations. In this study, we used the distally based lateral supramalleolar flap to reconstruct distal dorsal defects of the foot. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of the flap in reconstructing distal dorsal defects of the foot. The specific objectives were to study the adequacy, reach, and utility of the lateral supramalleolar flap for distal defects of the dorsum of the foot; to observe various complications encountered with the flap; and to study the functional outcomes of reconstruction.
Methods
The distal dorsal foot defects of 10 patients were reconstructed with distal lateral supramalleolar flaps over a period of 6 months at a tertiary care center, and the results were analyzed.
Results
We were able to effectively cover distal foot defects in all 10 cases. Flap congestion was observed in two cases, and minor graft loss was seen in two cases.
Conclusions
The distally based lateral supramalleolar flap is a good pedicled locoregional flap for the coverage of distal dorsal foot and ankle defects of moderate size, with relatively few complications and little morbidity. It can be used as a lifeboat or even substitute for a free flap.
Summary
Case Reports
Treatment of a penetrating inferior vena cava injury using doctor-helicopter emergency medical service and direct-to-operating room resuscitation in Korea: a case report
Dongmin Seo, Jieun Kim, Jiwon Kim, Inhae Heo, Jonghwan Moon, Kyoungwon Jung, Hohyung Jung
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):74-78.   Published online January 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0055
  • 738 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Inferior vena cava (IVC) injuries can have fatal outcomes and are associated with high mortality rates. Patients with IVC injuries require multiple procedures, including prehospital care, surgical techniques, and postoperative care. We present the case of a 67-year-old woman who stabbed herself in the abdomen with a knife, resulting in an infrarenal IVC injury. We shortened the transfer time by transporting the patient using a helicopter and decided to perform direct-to-operating room resuscitation by a trauma physician in the helicopter. The patient underwent laparotomy with IVC ligation for damage control during the first operation. The second- and third-look operations, including previous suture removal, IVC reconstruction, and IVC thrombectomy, were performed by a trauma surgeon specializing in cardiovascular diseases. The patient was discharged without major complications on the 19th postoperative day with rivaroxaban as an anticoagulant medication. Computed tomography angiography at the outpatient clinic showed that thrombi in the IVC and both iliac veins had been completely removed. Patients with IVC injuries can be effectively treated using a trauma system that includes fast transportation by helicopter, damage control for rapid hemostasis, and expert treatment of IVC injuries.
Summary
Thoracoabdominal injury with evisceration from a chainsaw assault: a case report
Babatunde Abayomi Salami, Babatunde Adeteru Ayoade, El-Zaki Abdullahi Shomoye, Chigbundu Collins Nwokoro
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):118-122.   Published online May 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0012
  • 5,760 View
  • 79 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The usual cause of penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries with evisceration are stab wounds with knives and other sharp weapons used during fights and conflicts. Evisceration of the abdominal viscera as a result of trauma, with its attendant morbidity and mortality, requires early intervention. Gunshot wounds can also cause penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries. We report the case of a 52-year-old male patient, a worker at a timber-processing factory, who was assaulted with a chainsaw by his colleague following a disagreement. He was seen at the accident and emergency department of our hospital with a thoracoabdominal injury about 1.5 hours after the attack. He had a left thoracoabdominal laceration with abdominal evisceration and an open left pneumothorax. He was managed operatively, made a full recovery, and was discharged 16 days after admission. He was readmitted 4 months after the initial surgery with acute intestinal obstruction secondary to adhesions. He underwent exploratory laparotomy and adhesiolysis. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the ninth postoperative day for subsequent follow-up.
Summary
Original Articles
Sports injuries: a 5-year review of admissions at a major trauma center in the United Kingdom
Ahmad Hammad Hassan, Aref-Ali Gharooni, Harry Mee, James Geffner, Fahim Anwar
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(1):39-48.   Published online July 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0084
  • 3,021 View
  • 53 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Sports offer several health benefits but are not free of injury risk. Activity dynamics vary across sports, impacting the injury profile and thereby influencing healthcare resource utilization and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate sports-related major trauma cases and compare differences across sports and activity groups.
Methods
A retrospective case notes review of sports-related major traumas over a 5-year period was conducted. Demographic, hospital episode-related, and health outcome-related data were analyzed, and differences were compared across sports and activity groups. The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) at discharge was used as the primary outcome measure and the length of hospital stay as the secondary outcome measure.
Results
In total, 74.6% of cases had good recovery at discharge (GOS, 5), 18.9% had moderate disability (GOS, 4), and 3.7% had severe disability (GOS, 3). The mean length of hospital stay was 11.2 days (range, 1–121 days). The most severely injured body region was the limbs (29.1%) and vertebral/spinal injuries were most common in terms of location (51.8%). A significant difference (P<0.05) existed in GOS across sports groups, with motor sports having the lowest GOS. However, no significant differences (P>0.05) were found in other health-outcome variables or injury patterns across sports or activity groups, although more competitive sports cases (67.08%) required admission than recreational sports cases (32.9%).
Conclusions
Spinal injuries are the most frequent sports injuries, bear the worst health outcomes, and warrant better preventive measures. Head injuries previously dominated the worst outcomes; this change is likely due to better preventive and management modalities. Competitive sports had a higher injury frequency than recreational sports, but no difference in health outcomes or injury patterns.
Summary
Proximally based sural artery flap for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects around the knee and proximal third of the leg in India: a clinical study
Palukuri Lakshmi, Sreedharala Srinivas, Dharmapuri Madhulika, Sanujit Pawde, Ajo Sebastian, Swathi Sankar, Sandeep Reddy Chintha
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):369-375.   Published online November 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0042
  • 796 View
  • 27 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The reconstruction of defects around the knee and the proximal third of the leg necessitates thin, pliable skin with a stable and sensate soft tissue cover. This study analyzed the use of a proximally based sural artery flap for the coverage of such defects.
Methods
This prospective clinical interventional study involved 10 patients who had soft tissue defects over the knee and the proximal third of the leg. These patients underwent reconstruction with a proximally based sural artery flap. The study analyzed various factors including age, sex, etiology, location and presentation of the defect, defect dimensions, flap particulars, postoperative complications, and follow-up.
Results
There were 10 cases, all of which involved men aged 20 to 65 years. The most common cause of injury was trauma resulting from road traffic accidents. The majority of defects were found in the proximal third of the leg, particularly on the anterolateral aspect. Defect dimensions varied from 6×3 to 15×13 cm2, and extensive defects as large as 16×14 cm could be covered using this flap. The size of the flaps ranged from 7×4 to 16×14 cm2, and the pedicle length was 10 to 15 cm. In all cases, donor site closure was achieved with split skin grafting. This flap consistently provided a thin, pliable, stable, and durable soft tissue cover over the defect with no functional deficit and minimal donor site morbidity. Complications, including distal flap necrosis and donor site graft loss, were observed in two cases.
Conclusions
The proximally based sural fasciocutaneous flap serves as the primary method for reconstructing medium to large soft tissue defects around the knee and the proximal third of the leg. This technique offers thin, reliable, sensate, and stable soft tissue coverage, and can cover larger defects with minimal complications.
Summary
Radiologic assessment of the optimal point for tube thoracostomy using the sternum as a landmark: a computed tomography‐based analysis
Jaeik Jang, Jae-Hyug Woo, Mina Lee, Woo Sung Choi, Yong Su Lim, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi, Sung Youl Hyun
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):37-47.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0058
  • 497 View
  • 9 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
This study aimed at developing a novel tube thoracostomy technique using the sternum, a fixed anatomical structure, as an indicator to reduce the possibility of incorrect chest tube positioning and complications in patients with chest trauma.
Methods
This retrospective study analyzed the data of 184 patients with chest trauma who were aged ≥18 years, visited a single regional trauma center in Korea between April and June 2022, and underwent chest computed tomography (CT) with their arms down. The conventional gold standard, 5th intercostal space (ICS) method, was compared to the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum method by analyzing CT images.
Results
When virtual tube thoracostomy routes were drawn at the mid-axillary line at the 5th ICS level, 150 patients (81.5%) on the right side and 179 patients (97.3%) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. However, at the lower 1/2 of the sternum level, 171 patients (92.9%, P<0.001) on the right and 182 patients (98.9%, P= 0.250) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. At the 5th ICS level, 129 patients (70.1%) on the right and 156 patients (84.8%) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Alternatively, at the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum level, 139 (75.5%, P=0.185), 49 (26.6%, P<0.001), and 10 (5.4%, P<0.001), respectively, on the right, and 146 (79.3%, P=0.041), 69 (37.5%, P<0.001), and 16 (8.7%, P<0.001) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Compared to the conventional 5th ICS method, the sternum 1/2 method had a safety zone prediction sensitivity of 90.0% to 90.7%, and 97.3% to 100% sensitivity for not passing the diaphragm.
Conclusions
Using the sternum length as a tube thoracostomy indicator might be feasible.
Summary
Review Article
Delayed union of a pediatric lunate fracture in the United Kingdom: a case report and a review of current concepts of non-scaphoid pediatric carpal fractures
Timothy P. Davis, Elizabeth Headon, Rebecca Morgan, Ashley I. Simpson
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):315-321.   Published online December 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0038
  • 680 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pediatric carpal fractures are rare and often difficult to detect. This paper reviews the current literature on pediatric non-scaphoid carpal fractures, with a case report of a lunate fracture associated with a distal radius and ulnar styloid fracture, managed nonoperatively in a 12-year-old boy. There is lack of consensus regarding the management of these fractures due to the low number of reported cases. A frequent lack of long-term follow-up limits our understanding of the outcomes, but good outcomes have been reported for both nonoperative and operative management. This case report brings attention to the current time period for the definition of delayed union in pediatric carpal fractures, and emphasizes the need for prolonged follow-up for the detection of delayed complications leading to functional impairment.
Summary
Original Articles
Chest wall injury fracture patterns are associated with different mechanisms of injury: a retrospective review study in the United States
Jennifer M. Brewer, Owen P. Karsmarski, Jeremy Fridling, T. Russell Hill, Chasen J Greig, Sarah Posillico, Carol McGuiness, Erin McLaughlin, Stephanie C. Montgomery, Manuel Moutinho, Ronald Gross, Evert A. Eriksson, Andrew R. Doben
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):48-59.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0065
  • 488 View
  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Research on rib fracture management has exponentially increased. Predicting fracture patterns based on the mechanism of injury (MOI) and other possible correlations may improve resource allocation and injury prevention strategies. The Chest Injury International Database (CIID) is the largest prospective repository of the operative and nonoperative management of patients with severe chest wall trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the MOI is associated with the resulting rib fracture patterns. We hypothesized that specific MOIs would be associated with distinct rib fracture patterns.
Methods
The CIID was queried to analyze fracture patterns based on the MOI. Patients were stratified by MOI: falls, motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), motorcycle collisions (MCCs), automobile-pedestrian collisions, and bicycle collisions. Fracture locations, associated injuries, and patient-specific variables were recorded. Heat maps were created to display the fracture incidence by rib location.
Results
The study cohort consisted of 1,121 patients with a median RibScore of 2 (0–3) and 9,353 fractures. The average age was 57±20 years, and 64% of patients were male. By MOI, the number of patients and fractures were as follows: falls (474 patients, 3,360 fractures), MVCs (353 patients, 3,268 fractures), MCCs (165 patients, 1,505 fractures), automobile-pedestrian collisions (70 patients, 713 fractures), and bicycle collisions (59 patients, 507 fractures). The most commonly injured rib was the sixth rib, and the most common fracture location was lateral. Statistically significant differences in the location and patterns of fractures were identified comparing each MOI, except for MCCs versus bicycle collisions.
Conclusions
Different mechanisms of injury result in distinct rib fracture patterns. These different patterns should be considered in the workup and management of patients with thoracic injuries. Given these significant differences, future studies should account for both fracture location and the MOI to better define what populations benefit from surgical versus nonoperative management.
Summary
Comparison of pediatric injury patterns before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea: a retrospective study
Geom Pil Nam, Woo Sung Choi, Jin-Seong Cho, Yong Su Lim, Jae-Hyug Woo, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):343-353.   Published online December 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0053
  • 631 View
  • 11 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
The COVID-19 pandemic led to significant changes in the lifestyle patterns of children and affected the patterns of pediatric injuries. This study analyzed the changing patterns of pediatric injury overall and by age groups, based on the datasets before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods
This study is based on the data of patients who presented with injuries at 24 hospital emergency departments participating in the Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) conducted by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The surveillance data was categorized by injury mechanism, location, activity, and severity. We analyzed the injury patterns of pediatric patients aged 0 to 15 years. Subgroup analysis was conducted by age group in children aged 7 to 15 years, 1 to 6 years, and <1 year.
Results
The study periods were March 12, 2018, to December 31, 2019 (pre–COVID-19 period) and March 12, 2020, to December 31, 2021 (COVID-19 pandemic period). A total of 222,304 patients aged ≤15 years were included in the study. When comparing the COVID-19 pandemic period to the pre–COVID-19 period, the total number of pediatric patients with injuries decreased by 38.7%, while the proportions of in-home injuries (57.9% vs. 67.9%), and minor injuries (39.3% vs. 49.2%) increased. In the 7 to 15 years group, bicycle riding injuries (50.9% vs. 65.6%) and personal mobility device injuries (2.4% vs. 4.6%) increased. The 1 to 6 years group also showed an increase in bicycle accident injuries (15.8% vs. 22.4%). In the <1 year group, injuries from falls increased (44.5% vs. 49.9%). Self-harm injuries in the 7 to 15 years group also increased (1.6% vs. 2.8%).
Conclusions
During the COVID-19 pandemic period, the overall number of pediatric injuries decreased, while injuries occurring at home and during indoor activities increased. Traffic accidents involving bicycles and personal mobility devices and self-harm injuries increased in the 7 to 15 years group. In the <1 year group, the incidence of falls increased. Medical and societal preparedness is needed so that we might anticipate these changes in the patterns of pediatric injuries during future infectious disease pandemics.
Summary
Emergency department laparotomy for patients with severe abdominal trauma: a retrospective study at a single regional trauma center in Korea
Yu Jin Lee, Soon Tak Jeong, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Sung Jin Park, Jihun Gwak, Wu Seong Kang
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):20-27.   Published online January 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0072
  • 609 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Severe abdominal injuries often require immediate clinical assessment and surgical intervention to prevent life-threatening complications. In Jeju Regional Trauma Center, we have instituted a protocol for emergency department (ED) laparotomy at the trauma bay. We investigated the mortality and time taken from admission to ED laparotomy.
Methods
We reviewed the data recorded in our center’s trauma database between January 2020 and December 2022 and identified patients who underwent laparotomy because of abdominal trauma. Laparotomies that were performed at the trauma bay or the ED were classified as ED laparotomy, whereas those performed in the operating room (OR) were referred to as OR laparotomy. In cases that required expeditious hemostasis, ED laparotomy was performed appropriately.
Results
From January 2020 to December 2022, 105 trauma patients admitted to our hospital underwent emergency laparotomy. Of these patients, six (5.7%) underwent ED laparotomy. ED laparotomy was associated with a mortality rate of 66.7% (four of six patients), which was significantly higher than that of OR laparotomy (17.1%, 18 of 99 patients, P=0.006). All the patients who received ED laparotomy also underwent damage control laparotomy. The time between admission to the first laparotomy was significantly shorter in the ED laparotomy group (28.5 minutes; interquartile range [IQR], 14–59 minutes) when compared with the OR laparotomy group (104 minutes; IQR, 88–151 minutes; P <0.001). The two patients who survived after ED laparotomy had massive mesenteric bleeding, which was successfully ligated. The other four patients, who had liver laceration, kidney rupture, spleen injury, and pancreas avulsion, succumbed to the injuries.
Conclusions
Although ED laparotomy was associated with a higher mortality rate, the time between admission and ED laparotomy was markedly shorter than for OR laparotomy. Notably, major mesenteric hemorrhages were effectively controlled through ED laparotomy.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury