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Original Articles
Effects of Trauma-Related Shock on Myocardial Function in the Early Period Using Transthoracic Echocardiography
Dae Sung Ma
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):119-125.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0041
  • 2,499 View
  • 83 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The present study aimed to analyze the effect of trauma-related shock on myocardial function in the early stages of trauma through transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings.

Methods

We performed a retrospective review and analysis of the medical records of patients aged ≥18 years who were evaluated by TTE within 2 days of admission for trauma-related shock (n=72). Patients were selected from a group of 739 patients admitted with trauma-related shock between January 2014 and December 2016.

Results

The incidence rate of myocardial dysfunction in the left ventricle (LV) was 6.8% (5/72), with rates of 7.7% (4/52) in the thoracic injury group and 5.0% (1/20) in the non-thoracic injury group. In the diastolic function of LV, relaxation abnormality was present in 55.8% (29/52) of patients in the thoracic injury group and 50% (10/20) of patients in the non-thoracic injury group.

Conclusions

This study may suggest that traumatic shock without thoracic injury may influence myocardial function in the early stages after trauma. Therefore, evaluation of myocardial function may be needed for patients experiencing shock after trauma, regardless of the presence of thoracic injury.

Summary
Case Series of Zone III Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta in Traumatic Shock Patients
Byungchul Yu, Gil Jae Lee, Kang Kook Choi, Min A Lee, Jihun Gwak, Youngeun Park, Jung Nam Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2020;33(3):162-169.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0031
  • 3,758 View
  • 67 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

There is increasing evidence in the literature regarding resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) globally, but few cases have been reported in Korea. We aimed to describe our experience of successful Zone III REBOA and to discuss its algorithm, techniques, and related complications.

Methods

We reviewed consecutive cases who survived from hypovolemic shock after Zone III REBOA placement for 4 years. We reviewed patients’ baseline characteristics, physiological status, procedural data, and outcomes.

Results

REBOA was performed in 44 patients during the study period, including 10 patients (22.7%) who underwent Zone III REBOA, of whom seven (70%) survived. Only one patient was injured by a penetrating mechanism and survived after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. All patients underwent interventions to stop bleeding immediately after REBOA placement.

Conclusions

This case series suggests that Zone III REBOA is a safe and feasible procedure that could be applied to traumatic shock patients with normal FAST findings who receive a chest X-ray examination at the initial resuscitation.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • On the Feasibility of Using REBOA Technology for the Treatment of Patients with Polytrauma
    A. I. Zhukov, N. N. Zadneprovsky, P. A. Ivanov, L. S. Kokov
    Russian Sklifosovsky Journal "Emergency Medical Ca.2024; 13(1): 14.     CrossRef
Case Report
Successful Damage Control Resuscitation with Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta in a Pediatric Patient
Yoonjung Heo, Sung Wook Chang, Dong Hun Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2020;33(3):170-174.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0012
  • 4,289 View
  • 96 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is considered an emerging adjunct therapy for profound hemorrhagic shock, as it can maintain temporary stability until definitive repair of the injury. However, there is limited information about the use of this procedure in children. Herein, we report a case of REBOA in a pediatric patient with blunt trauma, wherein the preoperative deployment of REBOA played a pivotal role in damage control resuscitation. A 7-year-old male patient experienced cardiac arrest after a motor vehicle accident. After 30 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, spontaneous circulation was achieved. The patient was diagnosed with massive hemoperitoneum. REBOA was then performed under ongoing resuscitative measures. An intra-aortic balloon catheter was deployed above the supraceliac aorta, which helped achieved permissive hypotension while the patient was undergoing surgery. After successful bleeding control with small bowel resection for mesenteric avulsion, thorough radiologic evaluations revealed hypoxic brain injury. The patient died from deterioration of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Although the patient did not survive, a postoperative computed tomography scan revealed neither remaining intraperitoneal injury nor peripheral ischemia correlated with the insertion of a 7-Fr sheath. Hence, REBOA can be a successful bridge therapy, and this result may facilitate the further usage of REBOA to save pediatric patients with non-compressible torso hemorrhage.

Summary
Original Articles
Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Traumatic Shock Patients from the Korean Society of Traumatology
Pil Young Jung, Byungchul Yu, Chan-Yong Park, Sung Wook Chang, O Hyun Kim, Maru Kim, Junsik Kwon, Gil Jae Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2020;33(1):1-12.   Published online March 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.015
  • 18,618 View
  • 1,033 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Despite recent developments in the management of trauma patients in South Korea, a standardized system and guideline for trauma treatment are absent.

Methods

Five guidelines were assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II instrument.

Results

Restrictive volume replacement must be used for patients experiencing shock from trauma until hemostasis is achieved (1B). The target systolic pressure for fluid resuscitation should be 80–90 mmHg in hypovolemic shock patients (1C). For patients with head trauma, the target pressure for fluid resuscitation should be 100–110 mmHg (2C). Isotonic crystalloid fluid is recommended for initially treating traumatic hypovolemic shock patients (1A). Hypothermia should be prevented in patients with severe trauma, and if hypothermia occurs, the body temperature should be increased without delay (1B). Acidemia must be corrected with an appropriate means of treatment for hypovolemic trauma patients (1B). When a large amount of transfusion is required for trauma patients in hypovolemic shock, a massive transfusion protocol (MTP) should be used (1B). The decision to implement MTP should be made based on hemodynamic status and initial responses to fluid resuscitation, not only the patient’s initial condition (1B). The ratio of plasma to red blood cell concentration should be at least 1:2 for trauma patients requiring massive transfusion (1B). When a trauma patient is in life-threatening hypovolemic shock, vasopressors can be administered in addition to fluids and blood products (1B). Early administration of tranexamic acid is recommended in trauma patients who are actively bleeding or at high risk of hemorrhage (1B). For hypovolemic patients with coagulopathy non-responsive to primary therapy, the use of fibrinogen concentrate, cryoprecipitate, or recombinant factor VIIa can be considered (2C).

Conclusions

This research presents Korea's first clinical practice guideline for patients with traumatic shock. This guideline will be revised with updated research every 5 years.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • An Artificial Intelligence Model for Predicting Trauma Mortality Among Emergency Department Patients in South Korea: Retrospective Cohort Study
    Seungseok Lee, Wu Seong Kang, Do Wan Kim, Sang Hyun Seo, Joongsuck Kim, Soon Tak Jeong, Dong Keon Yon, Jinseok Lee
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2023; 25: e49283.     CrossRef
  • Nonselective versus Selective Angioembolization for Trauma Patients with Pelvic Injuries Accompanied by Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis
    Hyunseok Jang, Soon Tak Jeong, Yun Chul Park, Wu Seong Kang
    Medicina.2023; 59(8): 1492.     CrossRef
Immediate Post-laparotomy Hypotension in Patients with Severe Traumatic Hemoperitoneum
Gil Jae Lee, Min A Lee, Byungchul Yoo, Youngeun Park, Myung Jin Jang, Kang Kook Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2020;33(1):38-42.   Published online March 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.014
  • 6,940 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Immediate post-laparotomy hypotension (PLH) is a precipitous drop in blood pressure caused by a sudden release of abdominal tamponade after laparotomy in cases of severe hemoperitoneum. The effect of laparotomy on blood pressure in patients with significant hemoperitoneum is unknown.

Methods

In total, 163 patients underwent laparotomy for trauma from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015. Exclusion criteria included the following: negative laparotomy, only a hollow viscous injury, and hemoperitoneum <1,000 mL. After applying those criteria, 62 patients were enrolled in this retrospective review. PLH was defined as a decrease in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥10 mmHg within 10 minutes after laparotomy.

Results

The mean estimated hemoperitoneum was 3,516 mL. The incidence of PLH was 23% (14 of 62 patients). The MAP did not show significant differences before and after laparotomy (5 minutes post-laparotomy, 67.5±16.5 vs. 68.3±18.8 mmHg; p=0.7; 10 minutes post-laparotomy, 67.5±16.5 vs. 70.4±18.8 mmHg; p=0.193). The overall in-hospital mortality was 24% (15 of 62 patients). Mortality was not significantly higher in the PLH group (two of 14 [14.3%] vs. 13 of 48 [27.1%]; p=0.33). No statistically significant between-group differences were observed in the intensive care unit and hospital stay.

Conclusions

PLH may be less frequent and less devastating than it is often considered. Surgical hemostasis during laparotomy is important. Laparotomy with adequate resuscitation may explain the equivalent outcomes in the two groups.

Summary
Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon occlusion of the aorta in Impending Traumatic arrest: Is It Effective?
Jae Sik Chung, Oh Hyun Kim, Seongyup Kim, Ji Young Jang, Gyo Jin An, Pil Young Jung
J Trauma Inj. 2020;33(1):23-30.   Published online March 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.001
  • 5,159 View
  • 140 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of death in trauma patients worldwide. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a technique used to improve the hemodynamic stability of patients with traumatic shock and to temporarily control arterial hemorrhage. However, further research is required to determine whether REBOA with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in near-arrest or arrest trauma patients can help resuscitation. We analyzed trauma patients who underwent REBOA according to their CPR status and evaluated the effects of REBOA in arrest situations.

Methods

This study was a retrospective single-regional trauma center study conducted at a tertiary medical institution from February 2017 to November 2019. We evaluated the mortality of severely injured patients who underwent REBOA and analyzed the factors that influenced the outcome. Patients were divided into CPR and non-CPR groups.

Results

We reviewed 1,596 trauma patients with shock, of whom 23 patients underwent REBOA (1.4%). Two patients were excluded due to failure and a repeated attempt of REBOA. The Glasgow Coma Scale score was lower in the CPR group than in the non-CPR group (p=0.009). Blood pressure readings at the emergency room were lower in the CPR group than in the non-CPR group, including systolic blood pressure (p=0.012), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.002), and mean arterial pressure (p=0.008). In addition, the mortality rate was higher in the CPR group (100%) than in the non-CPR group (50%) (p=0.012). The overall mortality rate was 76.2%.

Conclusions

Our study suggests that if REBOA is deemed necessary in a timely manner, it is better to perform REBOA before an arrest occurs. Therefore, appropriate protocols, including pre-hospital REBOA, should be constructed to demonstrate the effectiveness of REBOA in reducing mortality in arrest or impending arrest patients.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • An Early Experience of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) in the Republic of Korea: A Retrospective Multicenter Study
    Joonhyeon Park, Sung Woo Jang, Byungchul Yu, Gil Jae Lee, Sung Wook Chang, Dong Hun Kim, Ye Rim Chang, Pil Young Jung
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2020; 33(3): 144.     CrossRef
  • Pitfalls, Complications, and Necessity of Education about REBOA: A Single Regional Trauma Center Study
    Sol Kim, Jae Sik Chung, Sung Woo Jang, Pil Young Jung
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2020; 33(3): 153.     CrossRef
Case Report
Resuscitation from a pH of 6.5: A Case Report and Review of Pathophysiology and Management of Extreme Acidosis from Hypovolemic Shock after Trauma
Alexander Balmaceda, Sona Arora, Ilan Sondheimer, McKenzie M. Hollon
J Trauma Inj. 2019;32(4):238-242.   Published online December 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2019.029
  • 14,698 View
  • 368 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Extreme acidosis is a life-threatening physiological state that causes disturbances in the cardiovascular, pulmonary, immune, and hematological systems. Trauma patients commonly present to the operating room (OR) in hypovolemic shock, leading to tissue hypoperfusion and the development of acute metabolic acidosis with or without a respiratory component. It is often believed that trauma patients presenting to the OR in severe metabolic acidosis (pH <7.0) will have a nearly universal mortality rate despite aggressive resuscitation and damage control. The current literature does not include reports of successful resuscitations from a lower pH, which may lead providers to assume that a good outcome is not possible. However, here we describe a case of successful resuscitation from an initial pH of 6.5 with survival to discharge home 95 days after admission with almost full recovery. We describe the effects of acute acidosis on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and hemostasis. Finally, we discuss the pillars of management in patients with extreme acute acidosis due to hemorrhage: transfusion, treatment of hyperkalemia, and consideration of buffering acidosis with bicarbonate and hyperventilation.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prognosis of patients with extreme acidosis on admission to the emergency department: A retrospective cohort study
    Amichai Gutgold, Shaden Salameh, Jeries Nashashibi, Yonatan Gershinsky
    The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.2024; 76: 36.     CrossRef
  • Thoracotomy Resuscitation of a Patient Who Sustained Blunt Force Trauma with a pH of 6.7 on Admission and Ultra Massive Transfusion of 42 Units of Blood
    John T. Meghreblian, A. J. Bethurum, Lou M. Smith
    The American Surgeon™.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Successful Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients with Extreme Metabolic Acidosis Treated with Structured Approach: Case Series
    Sasa Dragic, Danica Momcicevic, Biljana Zlojutro, Milka Jandric, Tijana Kovacevic, Vlado Djajic, Ognjen Gajic, Pedja Kovacevic
    Clinical Medicine Insights: Case Reports.2021; 14: 117954762110251.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Usefulness of Shock Index to Predict Outcomes of Trauma Patient: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Myoung Jun Kim, Jung Yun Park, Mi Kyoung Kim, Jae Gil Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2019;32(1):17-25.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2018.034
  • 5,495 View
  • 178 Download
  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

We investigated how prehospital, emergency room (ER), and delta shock indices (SI) correlate with outcomes including mortality in patients with polytrauma.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1,275 patients who visited the emergency department from January 2015 to April 2018. A total of 628 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into survivor and non-survivor groups, and logistic regression analysis was used to investigate independent risk factors for death. Pearson coefficient analysis and chi-square test were used to examine the significant relationship between SI and clinical progression markers.

Results

Of 628 enrolled patients, 608 survived and 27 died. Multivariate logistic regression analysis reveals “age” (p<0.001; OR, 1.068), “pre-hospital SI >0.9” (p<0.001; OR, 11.629), and “delta SI ≥0.3” (p<0.001; OR, 12.869) as independent risk factors for mortality. Prehospital and ER SIs showed a significant correlation with hospital and intensive care unit length of stay and transfusion amount. Higher prehospital and ER SIs (>0.9) were associated with poor clinical progression.

Conclusions

SI and delta SI are significant predictors of mortality in patients with polytrauma. Moreover, both prehospital and ER SIs can be used as predictive markers of clinical progression in these patients.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Shock Index for the Prediction of Interventions and Mortality in Patients With Blunt Thoracic Trauma
    Mohammad Asim, Ayman El-Menyar, Talat Chughtai, Ammar Al-Hassani, Husham Abdelrahman, Sandro Rizoli, Hassan Al-Thani
    Journal of Surgical Research.2023; 283: 438.     CrossRef
  • Emergency Department Shock Index Outperforms Prehospital and Delta Shock Indices in Predicting Outcomes of Trauma Patients
    Hamidreza Hosseinpour, Tanya Anand, Sai Krishna Bhogadi, Christina Colosimo, Khaled El-Qawaqzeh, Audrey L. Spencer, Lourdes Castanon, Michael Ditillo, Louis J. Magnotti, Bellal Joseph
    Journal of Surgical Research.2023; 291: 204.     CrossRef
  • Shock index as a predictor for mortality in trauma patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Malene Vang, Maria Østberg, Jacob Steinmetz, Lars S. Rasmussen
    European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery.2022; 48(4): 2559.     CrossRef
  • Delta Shock Index Predicts Outcomes in Pediatric Trauma Patients Regardless of Age
    Samer Asmar, Muhammad Zeeshan, Muhammad Khurrum, Jorge Con, Mohamad Chehab, Letitia Bible, Rifat Latifi, Bellal Joseph
    Journal of Surgical Research.2021; 259: 182.     CrossRef
  • Shock index as a predictor for short‐term mortality in helicopter emergency medical services: A registry study
    Johannes Björkman, Lasse Raatiniemi, Piritta Setälä, Jouni Nurmi
    Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica.2021; 65(6): 816.     CrossRef
  • Association between prehospital field to emergency department delta shock index and in-hospital mortality in patients with torso and extremity trauma: A multinational, observational study
    Dae Kon Kim, Joo Jeong, Sang Do Shin, Kyoung Jun Song, Ki Jeong Hong, Young Sun Ro, Tae Han Kim, Sabariah Faizah Jamaluddin, Zsolt J. Balogh
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(10): e0258811.     CrossRef
Analysis of the Importance of Sacroiliac Joint Fractures as a Prognostic Factor of the Patients with Pelvic Fractures
Yeon-Uk Ju, Jun-Min Cho, Nam-Ryeol Kim, Kyung-Bum Lee, Jin-Kak Kim, Jong-Keon Oh
J Trauma Inj. 2018;31(1):6-11.   Published online April 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2018.31.1.6
  • 3,223 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The diagnosis of pelvic fractures pattern has become to be essential in the decision making of treatment modality and reducing morbidity and mortality in multiple trauma patients. Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disruption can cause life-threatening massive arterial bleeding. This study aimed to determine a method of predicting the prognosis and treatment direction with pelvis X-ray alone in the emergency room. We investigated whether SIJ disruption can be used alone as a poor prognostic factor.

Methods

We analyzed the medical records and radiologic examination results of 167 patients with pelvic fractures from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2016 retrospectively. Patients with pathologic fractures, thoraco-abdominal bleeding, and acetabulum fractures and pediatric patients (n=63) were excluded. Factors related to the clinical manifestations and treatments, such as transfusion and surgery, were statistically compared.

Results

The cross-sectional analysis showed that there was no correlation between SIJ injury and sex; there were statistically significant relationships between occurrences of shock, conjoined fractures, transfusion, and surgeries. The hospitalization period and partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time values increased. The logistic regression analysis showed that when an SIJ injury occurred, blood transfusion and hypotension possibilities increased.

Conclusions

When pelvic fractures occur near the SIJ, blood transfusion and shock possibilities increase. Physicians must be aware of the high severity and poor prognosis of such fractures when these are diagnosed in the emergency room. And furthermore, the physician has to predict and prepare the intensive care and multidisciplinary approaches.

Summary
Relation between Blood Alcohol Concentration and Clinical Parameters in Trauma Patients
Tae Hwa Hong, Ji Young Jang, Seung Hwan Lee, Hyung Won Kim, Hong Jin Shim, Jae Gil Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(4):256-261.   Published online December 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2015.28.4.256
  • 2,462 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on the clinical parameters in trauma patients.
METHODS
From January 2011 to March 2013, the records of a total of 102 trauma patients with BAC data were analyzed retrospectively. The revised trauma score (RTS), injury severity score (ISS), presence of shock, use of mechanical ventilation and blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Patients were divided into four groups in accordance with the level of BAC: group A (<100 mg/dL), B (100~200 mg/dL), C (200~250 mg/dL), and D (>250 mg/dL). Patients were also divided into two groups depending on the presence of the shock, and gender, ISS, BAC, and presence of active bleeding were compared between these two groups.
RESULTS
No statistically significant differences in the ISS, RTS, presence of active bleeding, use of mechanical ventilation, and mortality were noted between groups A to D. However, the presence of shock was significantly higher in group D. After patients with severe chest injuries had been excluded, mechanical ventilation was found to have been applied more frequently in the higher BAC groups (C and D). A logistic regression analysis of these factors showed that extremely high BAC (>250 mg/dL) was an independent indicator of shock.
CONCLUSION
High BAC is a predicator of shock and the need for mechanical ventilation in patients with trauma, regardless of injury severity. Alcohol intoxication leads to an overestimate of the clinical condition and aggressive management for trauma patients. Thus, a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of patients intoxicated with alcohol is necessary.
Summary
Effect of Heat Shock Protein 70 on Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase during Sepsis in Rats
Yong Keun Lee, Hyo Keun Shin, Woon Yong Kwon, Gil Joon Suh, Yeo Kyu Youn
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(1):59-65.
  • 1,346 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of overexpression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and on the concentration of nitric oxide and to determine the mechanism for the relationship between HSP70 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in sepsis.
METHODS
Experiments were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats, and sepsis was induced by using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Glutamine (GLN) or saline was administered 1 h after initiation of sepsis. We acquired serum and lung tissues from the rats 12 h or 24 h after initiation of sepsis. We analyzed the concentration of nitric oxide, the expression of HSP70 in the lung, and the gene expression of iNOS in the lung.
RESULTS
In CLP+GLN, glutamine given after initiation of sepsis enhanced the expression of HSP70 in the lung at 12 h (CLP+GLN vs. CLP:: 47.19 +/- 10.04 vs. 33.22 +/- 8.28, p = 0.025) and 24 h (CLP+GLN vs. CLP: 47.06 +/- 10.60 vs. 31.90 +/- 4.83, p = 0.004). In CLP+GLN, glutamine attenuated the expression of iNOS mRNA in the lung at 12 h (CLP+GLN vs. CLP: 4167.17 +/- 951.59 vs. 5513.73 +/- 1051.60, p = 0.025) and 24 h (CLP+GLN vs. CLP: 9,437.65 +/- 2,521.07 vs. 18,740.27 +/- 8,241.20, p = 0.016) and reduced the concentration of nitric oxide in serum at 12 h (CLP+GLN vs. CLP: 0.86 +/- 0.48 vs. 3.82 +/- 2.53 micromol/L, p = 0.016) and 24 h (CLP+GLN vs. CLP: 0.39 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.85 +/- 1.70 micromol/L, p = 0.025).
CONCLUSION
The overexpression of HSP70 induced by the administration of glutamine in sepsis attenuated the gene expression of iNOS and reduced the concentration of nitric oxide.
Summary
The Clinical Usefulness of Halo Sign on CT Image of Trauma Patients
Seung Yong Lee, You Dong Sohn, Hee Cheol Ahn, Gu Hyun Kang, Jung Tae Choi, Moo Eob Ahn, Jeong Youl Seo
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):144-148.
  • 1,179 View
  • 3 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The management of hemorrhagic shock is critical for trauma patients. To assess hemorrhagic shock, the clinician commonly uses a change in positional blood pressure, the shock index, an estimate of the diameter of inferior vena cava based on sonography, and an evaluation of hypoperfusion complex shown on a CT scan. To add the finding for the hypoperfusion complex, the 'halo sign' was introduced recently. To our knowledge, this 'halo sign' has not been evaluated for its clinical usefulness, so we designed this study to evaluate its usefulness and to find the useful CT signs for hypoperfusion complex.
METHODS
The study was done from January 2007 to May 2007. All medical records and CT images of 124 patients with trauma were reviewed, of which 103 patients were included. Exclusion criteria was as follows: 1) age < 15 year old and 2) head trauma score of AIS > or = 5.
RESULTS
The value of kappa, to assess the inter-observer agreement, was 0.51 (p < 0.001). The variables of the halo-sign-positive group were statistically different from those of the halo-sign-negative group. The rate of transfusion for the halo-sign-positive group was about 10 times higher than that of the halo-sign-negative group and the rate of mortality was about 6 times higher.
CONCLUSION
In the setting of trauma, early abdominal CT can show diffuse abnormalities due to hypoperfusion complex. Recognition of these signs is important in order to prevent an unwanted outcome in hemorrhagic shock. We conclude that the halo sign is a useful one for hypoperfusion complex and that it is useful for assessing the degree of hemorrhagic shock.
Summary
Comparisons of Fracture Types and Pelvic Angiographic Findings in Hemodynamically Unstable Pelvic Bone Fracture
Kwon Il Lee, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Chan Kang, Sung Min Park, Yong Su Jang, Tae Yong Shin, Sung Oh Hwang, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(1):26-32.
  • 1,242 View
  • 3 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of death in patients with pelvic bone fractures. The majority of blood loss is due to injured pelvic arteries and retroperitoneal veins and to bleeding from the fracture site itself. Pelvic angiography and embolization of injured vessels is an effective way to control continuous bleeding. However, identifying the bleeding focus in hemodynamically unstable patients before diagnostic intervention is difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between fracture patterns in hemodynamically unstable patients with pelvic fractures and later pelvic angiography findings.
METHODS
We performed a retrospective study of 21 hemodynamically unstable patients with pelvic fractures admitted to our emergency department between April 2001 to April 2006. All 21 patients underwent pelvic angiography. Pelvic fractures were assessed according to the Tile's classification and the degree of injury was assessed using the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Revised Trauma Score (RTS). The hemodynamic status of the patients was defined using vital signs, base excess, and blood lactate. Fracture patterns were compared with hemodynamic status and angiography findings.
RESULTS
In the 5year study period, 21 hemodynamically unstable pelvic bone fracture patients were admitted; ten were men (47.6%), and 11 were women (52.4%). The mean age was 41.1 years (range: +/-20.1). Of the 21 embolization was performed in 6 patient (28.6%): 1 patient of the 5 unstable pelvic bone fracture patients (20%), and 5 patients of 16 the stable pelvic bone fracture patients (31.3%). There were no significant differences between the RTS (p=0.587) and embolization rate (p=0.774) for either the stable patients or the unstable patients. Patients with arterial injury on angiography had a lower RTS compared with patients without arterial injury but there was no significant difference in ISS between the two groups. The angiographic injured sites were five internal femoral arteries and one external femoral artery.
CONCLUSION
The findings in this study suggest that the pelvic fracture pattern in hemodynamically unstable patients with pelvic fractures does not correlate with pelvic angiography findings.
Summary
Original article
Clinical Experience with using a Rapid Infuse at an Urban Emergency Department
Chong Kun Hong, Hyoung Gon Song
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):41-46.
  • 1,121 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Hypovolemia is not uncommon among trauma patients in the emergency department (ED). Successful resuscitation of a hypovolemic patient often requires rapid intravenous administration of massive amounts of fluid. A rapid fluid infuser is used in the ED for this purpose, there have been no studies of their clinical uses and effectiveness. We studied clinical experience with a rapid fluid infuser at an urban university hospital in Seoul, Korea.
METHODS
We reviewed the medical records of 38 patients admitted to the ED with a history of application of a rapid fluid infuser from January 2004 to July 2005. Adult trauma patients older than 15 years of age were included in this study. Clinical data on the patients and the volume of fluid used to achieve a stable blood pressure were extracted from their medical records.
RESULTS
The total number of adult trauma patients with a history of application of a rapid fluid infuser from January 2004 to July 2005 in the ED was 16. The mean systolic blood pressure for deciding to apply the rapid fluid infuser was 74.9+/-12.7 mmHg. The mean time and volume used to achieve a stable blood pressure were 40.4 min and 2947.3+/-1339.2 ml, respectively. In all patients, the amount of fluid infused before using the rapid fluid infuser was between 500 ml and 10,000 ml, compared to 1,000 ml and 6,200 ml with the rapid fluid infuser. The mean amount of fluid per min. via the rapid fluid infuser was 85.5 ml. Vital signs were stabilized in 11 patients, 6 of the 11 were discharged alive.
CONCLUSION
The mean amount of fluid delivered per min. via the rapid fluid infuser was much less than expected; thus, there should be clinical guidelines on volume resuscitation with a rapid fluid infuser in the ED. In the future, prospective, multicenter, clinical-data collection is needed for a more sophisticated study.
Summary
Original Article
Effect of Therapeutic Hypercapnia on Systemic Inflammatory Responses in Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats
Kyeong Won Kang, You Hwan Jo, Kyuseok Kim, Jae Hyuk Lee, Joong Eui Rhee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2012;25(1):17-24.
  • 1,171 View
  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was performed to investigate whether therapeutic hypercapnia could attenuate systemic inflammatory responses in hemorrhagic shock in rats.
METHODS
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were mechanically ventilated and underwent pressure-controlled (mean arterial pressure: 38+/-1 mmHg) hemorrhagic shock. At 10 minutes after the induction of hemorrhagic shock, the rats were divided into the normocapnia (PaCO2=35-45 mmHg, n=10) and the hypercapnia (PaCO2=60-70 mmHg) groups. The PaCO2 concentration was adjusted by using the concentration of inhaled CO2 gas. After 90 minutes of hemorrhagic shock, rats were resuscitated with shed blood for 10 minutes and were observed for 2 hours. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the heart rate were monitored continuously, and the results of arterial blood gas analyses, as well as the plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and nitrite/nitrate were compared between the normocapnia and the hypercapnia groups.
RESULTS
The MAP and the heart rate were not different between the two groups. The plasma concentration of IL-6 was significantly lower in the hypercapnia group than in the normocapnia group (p<0.05). The IL-10 concentration was not different and the IL-6 to IL-10 ratio was significantly lower in the hypercapnia group compared to the normocapnia group. The plasma nitrite/nitrate concentration of the hypercapnia group was lower than that of the normocapnia group.
CONCLUSION
Therapeutic hypercapnia attenuates systemic inflammatory responses in hemorrhagic shock.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury