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5 "Hemorrhagic shock"
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Original Articles
Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon occlusion of the aorta in Impending Traumatic arrest: Is It Effective?
Jae Sik Chung, Oh Hyun Kim, Seongyup Kim, Ji Young Jang, Gyo Jin An, Pil Young Jung
J Trauma Inj. 2020;33(1):23-30.   Published online March 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.001
  • 4,795 View
  • 140 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of death in trauma patients worldwide. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a technique used to improve the hemodynamic stability of patients with traumatic shock and to temporarily control arterial hemorrhage. However, further research is required to determine whether REBOA with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in near-arrest or arrest trauma patients can help resuscitation. We analyzed trauma patients who underwent REBOA according to their CPR status and evaluated the effects of REBOA in arrest situations.

Methods

This study was a retrospective single-regional trauma center study conducted at a tertiary medical institution from February 2017 to November 2019. We evaluated the mortality of severely injured patients who underwent REBOA and analyzed the factors that influenced the outcome. Patients were divided into CPR and non-CPR groups.

Results

We reviewed 1,596 trauma patients with shock, of whom 23 patients underwent REBOA (1.4%). Two patients were excluded due to failure and a repeated attempt of REBOA. The Glasgow Coma Scale score was lower in the CPR group than in the non-CPR group (p=0.009). Blood pressure readings at the emergency room were lower in the CPR group than in the non-CPR group, including systolic blood pressure (p=0.012), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.002), and mean arterial pressure (p=0.008). In addition, the mortality rate was higher in the CPR group (100%) than in the non-CPR group (50%) (p=0.012). The overall mortality rate was 76.2%.

Conclusions

Our study suggests that if REBOA is deemed necessary in a timely manner, it is better to perform REBOA before an arrest occurs. Therefore, appropriate protocols, including pre-hospital REBOA, should be constructed to demonstrate the effectiveness of REBOA in reducing mortality in arrest or impending arrest patients.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • An Early Experience of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) in the Republic of Korea: A Retrospective Multicenter Study
    Joonhyeon Park, Sung Woo Jang, Byungchul Yu, Gil Jae Lee, Sung Wook Chang, Dong Hun Kim, Ye Rim Chang, Pil Young Jung
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2020; 33(3): 144.     CrossRef
  • Pitfalls, Complications, and Necessity of Education about REBOA: A Single Regional Trauma Center Study
    Sol Kim, Jae Sik Chung, Sung Woo Jang, Pil Young Jung
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2020; 33(3): 153.     CrossRef
The Clinical Usefulness of Halo Sign on CT Image of Trauma Patients
Seung Yong Lee, You Dong Sohn, Hee Cheol Ahn, Gu Hyun Kang, Jung Tae Choi, Moo Eob Ahn, Jeong Youl Seo
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):144-148.
  • 1,122 View
  • 3 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The management of hemorrhagic shock is critical for trauma patients. To assess hemorrhagic shock, the clinician commonly uses a change in positional blood pressure, the shock index, an estimate of the diameter of inferior vena cava based on sonography, and an evaluation of hypoperfusion complex shown on a CT scan. To add the finding for the hypoperfusion complex, the 'halo sign' was introduced recently. To our knowledge, this 'halo sign' has not been evaluated for its clinical usefulness, so we designed this study to evaluate its usefulness and to find the useful CT signs for hypoperfusion complex.
METHODS
The study was done from January 2007 to May 2007. All medical records and CT images of 124 patients with trauma were reviewed, of which 103 patients were included. Exclusion criteria was as follows: 1) age < 15 year old and 2) head trauma score of AIS > or = 5.
RESULTS
The value of kappa, to assess the inter-observer agreement, was 0.51 (p < 0.001). The variables of the halo-sign-positive group were statistically different from those of the halo-sign-negative group. The rate of transfusion for the halo-sign-positive group was about 10 times higher than that of the halo-sign-negative group and the rate of mortality was about 6 times higher.
CONCLUSION
In the setting of trauma, early abdominal CT can show diffuse abnormalities due to hypoperfusion complex. Recognition of these signs is important in order to prevent an unwanted outcome in hemorrhagic shock. We conclude that the halo sign is a useful one for hypoperfusion complex and that it is useful for assessing the degree of hemorrhagic shock.
Summary
Comparisons of Fracture Types and Pelvic Angiographic Findings in Hemodynamically Unstable Pelvic Bone Fracture
Kwon Il Lee, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Chan Kang, Sung Min Park, Yong Su Jang, Tae Yong Shin, Sung Oh Hwang, Hyun Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(1):26-32.
  • 1,201 View
  • 3 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Hemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of death in patients with pelvic bone fractures. The majority of blood loss is due to injured pelvic arteries and retroperitoneal veins and to bleeding from the fracture site itself. Pelvic angiography and embolization of injured vessels is an effective way to control continuous bleeding. However, identifying the bleeding focus in hemodynamically unstable patients before diagnostic intervention is difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between fracture patterns in hemodynamically unstable patients with pelvic fractures and later pelvic angiography findings.
METHODS
We performed a retrospective study of 21 hemodynamically unstable patients with pelvic fractures admitted to our emergency department between April 2001 to April 2006. All 21 patients underwent pelvic angiography. Pelvic fractures were assessed according to the Tile's classification and the degree of injury was assessed using the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Revised Trauma Score (RTS). The hemodynamic status of the patients was defined using vital signs, base excess, and blood lactate. Fracture patterns were compared with hemodynamic status and angiography findings.
RESULTS
In the 5year study period, 21 hemodynamically unstable pelvic bone fracture patients were admitted; ten were men (47.6%), and 11 were women (52.4%). The mean age was 41.1 years (range: +/-20.1). Of the 21 embolization was performed in 6 patient (28.6%): 1 patient of the 5 unstable pelvic bone fracture patients (20%), and 5 patients of 16 the stable pelvic bone fracture patients (31.3%). There were no significant differences between the RTS (p=0.587) and embolization rate (p=0.774) for either the stable patients or the unstable patients. Patients with arterial injury on angiography had a lower RTS compared with patients without arterial injury but there was no significant difference in ISS between the two groups. The angiographic injured sites were five internal femoral arteries and one external femoral artery.
CONCLUSION
The findings in this study suggest that the pelvic fracture pattern in hemodynamically unstable patients with pelvic fractures does not correlate with pelvic angiography findings.
Summary
Effect of Therapeutic Hypercapnia on Systemic Inflammatory Responses in Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats
Kyeong Won Kang, You Hwan Jo, Kyuseok Kim, Jae Hyuk Lee, Joong Eui Rhee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2012;25(1):17-24.
  • 1,112 View
  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was performed to investigate whether therapeutic hypercapnia could attenuate systemic inflammatory responses in hemorrhagic shock in rats.
METHODS
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were mechanically ventilated and underwent pressure-controlled (mean arterial pressure: 38+/-1 mmHg) hemorrhagic shock. At 10 minutes after the induction of hemorrhagic shock, the rats were divided into the normocapnia (PaCO2=35-45 mmHg, n=10) and the hypercapnia (PaCO2=60-70 mmHg) groups. The PaCO2 concentration was adjusted by using the concentration of inhaled CO2 gas. After 90 minutes of hemorrhagic shock, rats were resuscitated with shed blood for 10 minutes and were observed for 2 hours. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the heart rate were monitored continuously, and the results of arterial blood gas analyses, as well as the plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and nitrite/nitrate were compared between the normocapnia and the hypercapnia groups.
RESULTS
The MAP and the heart rate were not different between the two groups. The plasma concentration of IL-6 was significantly lower in the hypercapnia group than in the normocapnia group (p<0.05). The IL-10 concentration was not different and the IL-6 to IL-10 ratio was significantly lower in the hypercapnia group compared to the normocapnia group. The plasma nitrite/nitrate concentration of the hypercapnia group was lower than that of the normocapnia group.
CONCLUSION
Therapeutic hypercapnia attenuates systemic inflammatory responses in hemorrhagic shock.
Summary
Case Report
Non-occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia (NOMI) Secondary to Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock: Case Report
Kyoung Hoon Lim, Hee Kyung Jung, Jayun Cho, Sang Cjeol Lee, Jinyoung Park
J Trauma Inj. 2014;27(4):204-207.
  • 1,198 View
  • 11 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) encompasses all forms of mesenteric ischemia with patent mesenteric arteries. NOMI is commonly caused by decreased cardiac output resulting in hypoperfusion of peripheral mesenteric arteries. We report a case of NOMI secondary to hemorrhagic shock and rhabdomyolysis due to trauma. A 42-year-old man presented to our trauma center following a pedestrian trauma. On arrival, he was drowsy and in a state of hemorrhagic shock. He was found to have multiple fractures, both lung contusion and urethral rupture. An initial physical examination and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed no evidence of intra-abdominal injury. High doses of catecholamine were administered for initial 3 days due to unstable vital sign. On day 25 of hospitalization, follow-up abdominal CT scan demonstrated that short segment of small bowel loop was dilated and bowel wall was not enhanced. During exploratory laparotomy, necrosis of the terminal ileum with intact mesentery was detected and ileocecectomy was performed. His postoperative course was uneventful and is under rehabilitation.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury