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Volume 34(4); December 2021
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Review Article
Trauma Surgery and War: A Historical Perspective
Kun Hwang
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):219-224.   Published online September 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0029
  • 4,176 View
  • 147 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The aim of this review is to introduce the progress in trauma surgery made during war. In the 16th century, Paré reintroduced ligature of arteries, which had been introduced by Celsus and Galen, instead of cauterization during amputation. Larrey, a surgeon in Napoleon’s military, adapted the “flying artillery” to serve as “flying ambulances” for rapid transport of the wounded. He established rules for the triage of war casualties, treating wounded soldiers according to the seriousness of their injuries and the urgency of medical care. To treat fractures and tuberculosis, Thomas created the “Thomas splint”, which was used to stabilize fractured femurs and prevent infection; in World War I (WWI), use of this splint reduced the mortality of compound femur fractures from 87% to less than 8%. During WWI, Cushing systematized the treatment of head injuries, reducing mortality among head injury patients. Gillies repaired facial injuries, and his experiences became the basis of craniofacial and aesthetic surgery. In WWII, McIndoe discovered that immersion in saline promoted burn healing and improved survival rates, and thus began saline baths and early grafting instead of using tannic acid. A high mortality rate in patients with acute renal failure was noted in WWII and the Korean War. In the Korean War, Teschan used the Kolff-Brigham dialyzer. The first use of medevac with helicopters was the evacuation of three British pilot combat casualties by the US Army in Burma during WWII. As a lotus blooms in the mud, military surgeons have contributed to trauma surgery during wartime.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • New horizons of Flaubert: from a barber-surgeon to a modern trauma surgeon
    Kun Hwang
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2022; 35(Suppl 1): S1.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Major Causes of Preventable Death in Trauma Patients
Youngeun Park, Gil Jae Lee, Min A Lee, Kang Kook Choi, Jihun Gwak, Sung Youl Hyun, Yang Bin Jeon, Yong-Cheol Yoon, Jungnam Lee, Byungchul Yu
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):225-232.   Published online July 29, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0074
  • 8,419 View
  • 226 Download
  • 15 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Trauma is the top cause of death in people under 45 years of age. Deaths from severe trauma can have a negative economic impact due to the loss of people belonging to socio-economically active age groups. Therefore, efforts to reduce the mortality rate of trauma patients are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate preventable mortality in trauma patients and to identify factors and healthcare-related challenges affecting mortality. Ultimately, these findings will help to improve the quality of trauma care.

Methods

We analyzed the deaths of 411 severe trauma patients who presented to Gachon University Gil Hospital regional trauma center in South Korea from January 2015 to December 2017, using an expert panel review.

Results

The preventable death rate of trauma patients treated at the Gachon University Gil Hospital regional trauma center was 8.0%. Of these, definitely preventable deaths comprised 0.5% and potentially preventable deaths 7.5%. The leading cause of death in trauma patients was traumatic brain injury. Treatment errors most commonly occurred in the intensive care unit (ICU). The most frequent management error was delayed treatment of bleeding.

Conclusions

Most errors in the treatment of trauma patients occurred in early stages of the treatment process and in the ICU. By identifying the main causes of preventable death and errors during the course of treatment, our research will help to reduce the preventable death rate. Appropriate trauma care systems and ongoing education are also needed to reduce preventable deaths from trauma.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effects of Transport to Trauma Centers on Survival Outcomes Among Severe Trauma Patients in Korea: Nationwide Age-Stratified Analysis
    Hakrim Kim, Kyoung Jun Song, Ki Jeong Hong, Jeong Ho Park, Tae Han Kim, Stephen Gyung Won Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • TiME OUT: Time-specific machine-learning evaluation to optimize ultramassive transfusion
    Courtney H. Meyer, Jonathan Nguyen, Andrew ElHabr, Nethra Venkatayogi, Tyler Steed, Judy Gichoya, Jason D. Sciarretta, James Sikora, Christopher Dente, John Lyons, Craig M. Coopersmith, Crystal Nguyen, Randi N. Smith
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.2024; 96(3): 443.     CrossRef
  • Progressive Reduction in Preventable Mortality in a State Trauma System Using Continuous Preventable Mortality Review to Drive Provider Education: Results of Analyzing 1,979 Trauma Deaths from 2015 to 2022
    Charles D Mabry, Benjamin Davis, Michael Sutherland, Ronald Robertson, Jennifer Carger, Deidre Wyrick, Terry Collins, Austin Porter, Kyle Kalkwarf
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons.2024; 238(4): 426.     CrossRef
  • Emergency department laparotomy for patients with severe abdominal trauma: a retrospective study at a single regional trauma center in Korea
    Yu Jin Lee, Soon Tak Jeong, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Sung Jin Park, Jihun Gwak, Wu Seong Kang
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2024; 37(1): 20.     CrossRef
  • Angioembolization performed by trauma surgeons for trauma patients: is it feasible in Korea? A retrospective study
    Soonseong Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Soon Tak Jeong, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Sung Jin Park, Jihun Gwak, Wu Seong Kang
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2024; 37(1): 28.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of mortality over 7 years in a mature trauma center: evolution of preventable mortality in severe trauma patients
    Sarah Guigues, Jean Cotte, Jean-Baptiste Morvan, Henry de Lesquen, Bertrand Prunet, Mathieu Boutonnet, Nicolas Libert, Pierre Pasquier, Eric Meaudre, Julien Bordes, Michael Cardinale
    European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery.2023; 49(3): 1425.     CrossRef
  • Incidence and predictors of mortality among adult trauma patients admitted to the intensive care units of comprehensive specialized hospitals in Northwest Ethiopia
    Mengistu Abebe Messelu, Ambaye Dejen Tilahun, Zerko Wako Beko, Hussien Endris, Asnake Gashaw Belayneh, Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema
    European Journal of Medical Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes of Elderly Patients with Trauma Treated in a Local Trauma Center
    Kwanhoon Park, Geonjae Cho, Sungho Lee, Kang Yoon Lee, Ji Young Jang
    Journal of Acute Care Surgery.2023; 13(1): 13.     CrossRef
  • An Artificial Intelligence Model for Predicting Trauma Mortality Among Emergency Department Patients in South Korea: Retrospective Cohort Study
    Seungseok Lee, Wu Seong Kang, Do Wan Kim, Sang Hyun Seo, Joongsuck Kim, Soon Tak Jeong, Dong Keon Yon, Jinseok Lee
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2023; 25: e49283.     CrossRef
  • Preventable Death Rate of Trauma Patients in a Non-Regional Trauma Center
    Kwanhoon Park, Wooram Choi, Sungho Lee, Kang Yoon Lee, Dongbeen Choi, Han-Gil Yoon, Ji Young Jang
    Journal of Acute Care Surgery.2023; 13(3): 118.     CrossRef
  • Nine year in-hospital mortality trends in a high-flow level one trauma center in Italy
    Elisa Reitano, Roberto Bini, Margherita Difino, Osvaldo Chiara, Stefania Cimbanassi
    Updates in Surgery.2022; 74(4): 1445.     CrossRef
  • Decision support by machine learning systems for acute management of severely injured patients: A systematic review
    David Baur, Tobias Gehlen, Julian Scherer, David Alexander Back, Serafeim Tsitsilonis, Koroush Kabir, Georg Osterhoff
    Frontiers in Surgery.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Flat Inferior Vena Cava on Computed Tomography for Predicting Shock and Mortality in Trauma: A Meta-Analysis
    Do Wan Kim, Hee Seon Yoo, Wu Seong Kang
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(12): 2972.     CrossRef
  • Model for Predicting In-Hospital Mortality of Physical Trauma Patients Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques: Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea
    Seungseok Lee, Wu Seong Kang, Sanghyun Seo, Do Wan Kim, Hoon Ko, Joongsuck Kim, Seonghwa Lee, Jinseok Lee
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2022; 24(12): e43757.     CrossRef
  • Thoracic injuries in trauma patients: epidemiology and its influence on mortality
    Andrea Lundin, Shahzad K. Akram, Lena Berg, Katarina E. Göransson, Anders Enocson
    Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and .2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Epidemiology of Facial Bone Fractures During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: A Single Korean Level I Trauma Center Study
Min Ji Kim, Kyung Min Yang, Hyoseob Lim
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):233-241.   Published online December 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0098
  • 3,539 View
  • 97 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The medical community has been heavily impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The management of facial trauma patients has been affected by the patient capacity of emergency rooms. In this study, we share our experiences of facial trauma management during the social lockdown period and investigate the epidemiological changes in facial bone fractures.

Methods

A total of 997 patients who presented to Ajou University Hospital Emergency Center and were evaluated by plastic or maxillofacial surgeons for facial trauma were included in this retrospective study. Our study design was a comparative study of two groups: the 2019 group (control) and the 2020 group (the experimental group that experienced social lockdown).

Results

The total number of emergency room inpatients reflected the national pandemic trends with three peaks in patient numbers. According to these trends, facial bone fractures had two different low points in August 2020 and December 2020. A comparison of the 2019 and 2020 facial bone fractures did not show a statistically significant difference in the total number of patients. An analysis of the causes of trauma showed that domestic accidents increased in 2020 (30.92%; p<0.001). Among the anatomical sites of facial injury in surgical patients, the frontozygomatic complex fracture increased the most in 2020 (p=0.018). Facial injuries with two separate sites of injury or with three or more involved sites also showed a significant increase in 2020 (p<0.001).

Conclusions

We demonstrated that the incidence of facial trauma patients correlated with the incidence of patients presenting to the emergency department and that facial trauma is inextricably related to multi-trauma cases. Domestic accidents and facial trauma with multiple anatomically involved sites are increasing trends that need more attention.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Changes in Injury Pattern and Outcomes of Trauma Patients after COVID-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    Myungjin Jang, Mina Lee, Giljae Lee, Jungnam Lee, Kangkook Choi, Byungchul Yu
    Healthcare.2023; 11(8): 1074.     CrossRef
  • The Trend of Change in Oral and Maxillofacial Injuries of Pediatric Patients in the COVID-19 Pandemic: a Regional Emergency Medical Center and Dental Hospital Study
    Suebin Choi, Chankue Park, Jonghyun Shin, Taesung Kim, Eungyung Lee
    THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DEN.2023; 50(3): 318.     CrossRef
Blunt Cardiac Injuries That Require Operative Management: A Single-Center 7-Year Experience
Seung Hwan Lee, Myung Jin Jang, Yang Bin Jeon
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):242-247.   Published online July 14, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0069
  • 5,787 View
  • 111 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Blunt cardiac injuries (BCI) have a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic myocardial contusion to cardiac rupture and death. BCIs rarely require surgical intervention, but can be rapidly fatal, requiring prompt evaluation and surgical treatment in some cases. The aim of this study was to identify potential factors associated with in-hospital mortality after surgery in patients with BCI.

Methods

The medical records of 15 patients who had undergone emergency cardiac surgery for BCI between January 2014 and August 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. We included trauma patients older than 18 years admitted to Regional Trauma Center, Gachon University Gil Medical Center during the study period. Clinical and laboratory variables were compared between survivors and non-survivors.

Results

Non-survivors showed a significantly higher Injury Severity Score (p=0.001) and Abbreviated Injury Scale in the chest region (p=0.001) than survivors. American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-Organ Injury Scale Grade V injuries were significantly more common in non-survivors than in survivors (p=0.031). Non-survivors had significantly more preoperative packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions (p=0.019) and were significantly more likely to experience preoperative cardiac arrest (p=0.001) than survivors. Initial pH (p=0.010), lactate (p=0.026), and base excess (BE; p=0.026) levels showed significant differences between the two groups.

Conclusions

Initial pH, lactate, BE, ventricular injury, the amount of preoperative PRBC transfusions, and preoperative cardiac arrest were potential predictors of in-hospital mortality.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Treatment results of cardiac tamponade due to thoracic trauma at Jeju Regional Trauma Center, Korea: a case series
    Jeong Woo Oh, Minjeong Chae
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2023; 36(3): 180.     CrossRef
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Laparoscopy for Abdominal Trauma: A Single Surgeon’s Experience at a Level I Trauma Center
Hancheol Jo, Dong Hun Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):248-256.   Published online March 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0081
  • 3,232 View
  • 104 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Laparoscopy has various advantages over laparotomy in terms of postoperative recovery. The number of surgeons using laparoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in abdominal trauma patients is increasing, whereas open conversion is becoming less common. This report summarizes a single surgeon’s experience of laparoscopy at a level I trauma center and evaluates the feasibility of laparoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for abdominal trauma patients.

Methods

In total, 30 abdominal trauma patients underwent laparoscopy by a single surgeon from October 2014 to May 2020. The purpose of laparoscopy was categorized as diagnostic or therapeutic. Patients were classified into three groups by type of surgery: total laparoscopic surgery (TLS), laparoscopy-assisted surgery (LAS), or open conversion (OC). Univariate analysis was performed to determine the advantages and disadvantages.

Results

The mechanism of injury was blunt in 19 (63.3%) and penetrating in 11 patients (36.7%). Eleven (36.7%) and 19 patients (63.3%) underwent diagnostic and therapeutic laparoscopy, respectively. The hospital stay was shorter for patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy than for those who underwent therapeutic laparoscopy (5.0 days vs. 13.0 days), but no other surgical outcomes differed between the groups. TLS, LAS, and OC were performed in 12 (52.2%), eight (34.8%), and three patients (13.0%), respectively. There was no significant difference in morbidity and mortality among the three groups.

Conclusions

Laparoscopic surgery for selected cases of abdominal trauma may be feasible and safe as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in hemodynamically stable patients due to the low OC rate and the absence of fatal morbidity and mortality.

Summary
Pediatric Hand Trauma: An Analysis of 3,432 Pediatric Hand Trauma Cases Over 15 Years
Ki Pyo Sung, Soo Hyang Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):257-262.   Published online October 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0037
  • 2,703 View
  • 73 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Pediatric hand trauma is common and sometimes causes deformity or disability. The incidence and etiologies of hand trauma in children are different from those in adults. This study analyzed the characteristics of pediatric hand trauma cases and patients over a 15-year period.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective medical record review of 3,432 children (2,265 boys, 1,167 girls, under 18 years of age) with hand injuries from January 2005 to December 2019. We evaluated the sex distribution and injury etiologies. Injuries were classified by type as burns, amputations, crushing injuries, lacerations, extensor and flexor tendon injuries, open and closed fractures, and nerve injuries.

Results

Among the pediatric hand injury patients, males were predominant (1.94:1). Simple lacerations (58.4%) were the most common injury type, followed by fractures (22.8%). Lacerations and burns tended to be common in younger age groups, while tendon injuries, nerve injuries, and crushing injuries were more frequently encountered in older age groups.

Conclusions

Hand trauma prevention strategies should be established considering the frequent trauma etiologies in specific age groups. An awareness of age-specific characteristics of pediatric hand trauma patients will be helpful to prevent hand trauma.

Summary
Characteristics of Traffic Accidents on Highways: An Analysis Based on Patients Treated at a Regional Trauma Center
Sung Yong Lee, Kyung Hoon Sun, Chan Yong Park, Tae Hoon Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):263-269.   Published online June 4, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0063
  • 8,346 View
  • 95 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

There have been increasing concerns about serious traffic accidents on highways. The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting traffic accidents on highways and the severity of the resulting injuries.

Methods

This retrospective study was conducted at a regional trauma center. We reviewed 594 patients who had been in 114 traffic accidents on highways from January 2018 to June 2020. We collected demographic data, clinical data, accident-related factors, and meteorological data (weather and temperature).

Results

Environmental risk factors were found to be significantly associated with the incidence of traffic accidents on highways. Injury severity and the death rate were higher in sedans than in any other type of vehicle. Tunnels were the most common location of accidents, accounting for 47 accidents (41.2%) and 269 injured patients (45.3%). The injury severity of individuals riding in the driver’s seat (front seat) was high, regardless of vehicle type. Three meteorological risk factors were found to be significantly associated with traffic accidents: rainy roads (odds ratio [OR] 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84–3.29; p=0.01), icy or snowy roads (OR 5.12; 95% CI 2.88–7.33; p<0.01), and foggy conditions (OR 2.94; 95% CI 2.15–4.03; p<0.05).

Conclusions

The injury severity of patients was affected by seat position and type of vehicle, and the frequency of accident was affected by the location. The incidence of traffic accidents was strongly influenced by meteorological conditions (rain, snow/ice, and fog).

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • What are the individual and joint impacts of key meteorological factors on the risk of unintentional injuries? A case-crossover study of over 147,800 cases from a sentinel-based surveillance system
    Xiao Lin, Tian Tian, Congxing Shi, Pengyu Wang, Shimin Chen, Tong Guo, Zhiqiang Li, Boheng Liang, Wangjian Zhang, Pengzhe Qin, Yuantao Hao
    Sustainable Cities and Society.2023; 91: 104413.     CrossRef
Surgical Outcomes in Patients with Simultaneous Traumatic Brain and Torso Injuries in a Single Regional Trauma Center over a 5-Year Period
Jung-Ho Yun
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):270-278.   Published online December 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0099
  • 2,440 View
  • 76 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The purpose of the study is to analyze the results of surgical treatment of patients with brain and torso injury for 5 years in a single regional trauma center.

Methods

We analyzed multiple trauma patients who underwent brain surgery and torso surgery for chest or abdominal injury simultaneously or sequentially among all 14,175 trauma patients who visited Dankook University Hospital Regional Trauma Center from January 2015 to December 2019.

Results

A total of 25 patients underwent brain surgery and chest or abdominal surgery, with an average age of 55.4 years, 17 men and eight women. As a result of surgical treatment, there were 14 patients who underwent the surgery on the same day (resuscitative surgery), of which five patients underwent surgery simultaneously, four patients underwent brain surgery first, and one patient underwent chest surgery first, four patients underwent abdominal surgery first. Among the 25 treated patients, the 10 patients died, which the cause of death was five severe brain injuries and four hemorrhagic shocks.

Conclusions

In multiple damaged patients require both torso surgery and head surgery, poor prognosis was associated with low initial Glasgow Coma Scale and high Injury Severity Score. On the other hand, patients had good prognosis when blood pressure was maintained and operation for traumatic brain injury was performed first. At the same time, patients who had operation on head and torso simultaneously had extremely low survival rates. This may be associated with secondary brain injury due to low perfusion pressure or continuous hypotension and the traumatic coagulopathy caused by massive bleeding.

Summary
Case Reports
Delayed Post-Traumatic Spinal Cord Infarction with Quadriplegia: A Case Report
Tae Hoon Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):279-283.   Published online August 10, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0004
  • 3,880 View
  • 104 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Traumatic spinal cord infarction is a rare condition that causes serious paralysis. The regulation of spinal cord blood flow in injured spinal cords remains unknown. Spinal cord infarction or ischemia has been reported after cardiovascular interventions, scoliosis correction, or profound hypotension. In this case, a 52-year-old man revisited the emergency center with motor and sensory abnormalities in all four extremities 56 hours after a motor vehicle collision. Despite the clinical presentation and imaging examination, there were no specific findings on the patient’s first visit to the trauma center. Cervical spine computed tomography angiography showed a narrow vertebral artery, and diffusion-weighted imaging revealed spinal cord infarction from C3 to C5 with high signal intensity. It should be kept in mind that delayed-onset spinal cord infarction may occur in minor or major trauma patients as a result of head and neck injuries.

Summary
Chest Wall Reconstruction for the Treatment of Lung Herniation and Respiratory Failure 1 Month after Emergency Thoracotomy in a Patient with Traumatic Flail Chest
Junepill Seok, Il Jae Wang
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):284-287.   Published online August 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0059
  • 8,042 View
  • 89 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

We report a case of delayed chest wall reconstruction after thoracotomy. A 53-year-old female, a victim of a motor vehicle accident, presented with bilateral multiple rib fractures with flail motion and multiple extrathoracic injuries. Whole-body computed tomography revealed multiple fractures of the bilateral ribs, clavicle, and scapula, and bilateral hemopneumothorax with severe lung contusions. Active hemorrhage was also found in the anterior pelvis, which was treated by angioembolization. The patient was transferred to the surgical intensive care unit for follow-up. We planned to perform surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) because her lung condition did not seem favorable for general anesthesia. Within a few hours, however, massive hemorrhage (presumably due to coagulopathy) drained through the thoracic drainage catheter. We performed an exploratory thoracotomy in the operating room. We initially planned to perform exploratory thoracotomy and “on the way out” SSRF. In the operating room, the hemorrhage was controlled; however, her condition deteriorated and SSRF could not be completed. SSRF was completed after about a month owing to other medical conditions, and the patient was weaned successfully.

Summary
Pre-Hospital and In-Hospital Management of an Abdominal Impalement Injury Caused by a Tree Branch
So Ra Ahn, Joo Hyun Lee, Keun Young Kim, Chan Yong Park
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):288-293.   Published online December 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0051
  • 4,690 View
  • 179 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

In South Korea, most patients who visit trauma centers with abdominal injuries have blunt trauma, and penetrating injuries are relatively rare. In extremely rare cases, some patients are admitted with a long object penetrating their abdomen, and these injuries are referred to as abdominal impalement injuries. Most cases of impalement injuries lead to fatal bleeding, and patients often die at the scene of the accident. However, patients who survive until reaching the hospital can have a good prognosis with optimal treatment. A 68-year-old female patient was admitted to the trauma center with a 4-cm-thick tree branch impaling her abdomen. The patient was transported by a medical helicopter and had stable vital signs at admission. The branch sticking out of the abdomen was quite long; thus, we carefully cut the branch with an electric saw to perform computed tomography (CT). CT revealed no signs of major blood vessel injury, but intestinal perforation was observed. During laparotomy, the tree branch was removed after confirming that there were no vascular injuries, and enterostomy was performed because of extensive intestinal injury. After treating other injuries, the patient was discharged without any complications except colostomy. Abdominal impalement injuries are treated using various approaches depending on the injury mechanism and injured region. However, the most important consideration is that the impaled object should not be removed during transportation and resuscitation. Instead, it should only be removed after checking for injuries to blood vessels during laparotomy in an environment where injury control is possible.

Summary
Complete Transection of the Cystic Duct and Artery after Blunt Trauma: A Case Report
Sung Hoon Cho, Kyoung Hoon Lim
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):294-298.   Published online December 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0097
  • 2,767 View
  • 80 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Extrahepatic biliary tract and gallbladder injuries following blunt abdominal trauma are uncommon. Traumatic cystic duct transection is even rarer, which has frequently caused missed diagnosis and delayed treatment. An 18-year-old female patient with no past medical history was transferred to the Trauma Center of Kyungpook National University Hospital after falling from a height of approximately 20 meters. She became hemodynamically stable after initial resuscitation, and initial contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed right kidney traumatic infarction and multiple intrahepatic contusions with minimal fluid collection but no extravasation of the contrast. She was admitted to the intensive care unit. On the second day of hospitalization, her abdomen became distended, with follow-up CT showing a large collection of intra-abdominal fluid. Laparoscopic exploration was then performed, which revealed devascularization of the gallbladder with complete transection of the cystic duct and artery. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed, as well as primary closure of the cystic duct orifice on the common bile duct using a 4-0 Prolene suture. After surgery, no clinical evidence of biliary leakage or common bile duct stricture was observed.

Summary

Citations

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  • A Rare Complication of Percutaneous Transhepatic Gallbladder Drainage
    Yang-Yuan Chen, Chih-Hsuan Chen, Yung-Fang Chen
    Gastroenterology.2022; 163(5): e29.     CrossRef
Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome after Traumatic Rectal Injury: A Case Report
Ji-Hyoun Kang, Donghyun Lee, Yunchul Park
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):299-304.   Published online September 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0068
  • 2,608 View
  • 62 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, progressive, life-threatening condition of thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and renal impairment. The mechanisms underlying aHUS remain unclear. Herein, we present the first case in the literature of aHUS after a traumatic injury. A 55-year-old male visited the emergency department after a traumatic injury caused by a tree limb. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a rectal wall defect with significant air density in the perirectal space and preperitoneum, implying rectal perforation. Due to the absence of intraperitoneal intestinal perforation, we performed diverting sigmoid loop colostomy. An additional intermittent simple repair was performed due to perianal and anal injuries. One day postoperatively, his urine output abruptly decreased and serum creatinine level increased. His platelet level decreased, and a spiking fever occurred after 2 days. The patient was diagnosed with acute renal failure secondary to aHUS and was treated with fresh frozen plasma replacement. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was also started for oliguria and uremic symptoms. The patient received CRRT for 3 days and intermittent hemodialysis thereafter. After hemodialysis and subsequent supportive treatment, his urine output and renal function improved. The hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia also gradually improved. Dialysis was terminated on day 22 of admission and the patient was discharged after recovery. This case suggests that that a traumatic event can trigger aHUS, which should be considered in patients who have thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Early diagnosis and appropriate management are critical for favorable outcomes.

Summary
Transosseous Tie Fixation Using Krackow Sutures and Bone Tunnels in a Comminuted Fracture of the Upper Pole of the Patella: A Case Report
Jong Seok Baik
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):305-308.   Published online June 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0083
  • 3,116 View
  • 74 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Comminuted fractures of the patella mostly occur at the inferior pole and require appropriate reduction and fixation to restore the extensor mechanism. Conventional methods such as tension-band wiring are not enough to gain proper fixation strength. Numerous methods have been reported, including circumferential cerclage wiring, osteosynthesis, and suture anchors depending on the fracture pattern. Herein, the author reports a relatively rare case of a comminuted fracture of the upper pole of the patella, for which we used augmented Krackow sutures in the quadriceps and fixation with tying of the suture limbs through patellar bone tunnels. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of reduction and extensor mechanism recovery.

Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury