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Volume 21(2); December 2008
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Original Article
Validation of the Simplified Motor Score for the Triage after Traumatic Brain Injury
Sang Kyong Lee, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Jung Bae Park, Kang Suk Seo, Jae Myung Chung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):71-77.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), though it is widely used for triage, has been criticized as being unnecessarily complex. Recently, a 3-point Simplified Motor Score (SMS, defined as obeys commands=2; localizes pain=1; withdrawals to pain or worse=0) was developed from the motor component of the GCS and was found to have a similar test performance for triage after traumatic brain injury when compared with the GCS as the criterion standard. The purpose of this study was to validate the SMS.
METHODS
We analyzed the patients who visited Kyungpook National University Hospital emergency center after traumatic brain injury from 2006 January to 2006 June. The test performance of the GCS, its motor component, and SMS relative to three clinically relevant traumatic brain injury outcomes (abnormal brain CT scans, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)> or =4, and mortality) were evaluated with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs).
RESULTS
Of 504 patients included in the analysis, 25.6% had an abnormal brain CT scans, 13.1% had AIS> or = 4, and 5.0% died. The AUCs for the GCS, its motor component, and SMS with respect to the abnormal CT scans were 0.776, 0.715, and 0.716, and respectively, those for AIS> or =4 and mortality, were 0.969, 0.973, and 0.968, and 0.931, 0.909, and 0.909, respectively.
CONCLUSION
The 3-point SMS demonstrated similar test performance when compared with the 15-point GCS score and its motor component for triage after traumatic brain injury in our populations.
Summary
Original article
Epidemiological Multi-center Study of Blast Injury in Military Centers
Won Young Kim, Wook Jin Choi, Jong Ho Lee, Ha Young Park, Dong Ook Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):78-84.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Recently, the incidence of blast injury has been on the increase worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and analyze blast injuries in South Korea.
METHODS
This was a retrospective multi-center study of blast injuries in three tertiary military centers. The medical records of patients with blast injuries from January 2003 to December 2007 were reviewed. The injury severity was evaluated according to the Injury Severity Score (ISS), the Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and the Trauma Score and the Injury Severity Score (TRISS).
RESULTS
This study revealed epidemiological data of blast injury in the three tertiary military hospital. A total of 94 cases of blast injury had occurred. Various body regions were involved. The most frequently injured site was the upper extremity (52.1%). The mechanisms for the blast injuries were primary (41.5%), secondary (74.5%), tertiary (7.4%), and quaternary (29.8%). The mean injury-to-hospital arrival time was 3.2+/-1.7 hour. The rate of admission was 88.3%, and the rate of ICU admission was 32.5%. Thirty-six (36) cases required an emergency operation. Most were performed by an Orthopedist (55.6%), an Ophthalmologist (19.4%), or a general surgeon (13.9%). The mortality rate from blast injury was 4.3%.
CONCLUSION
This was the first paper to present data on the type of injury, the site of injury, the cause of death, and the mortality from blast injury in South Korea. Chest injury, brain injury, tertiary injury mechanisms, ISS> or = 16, and a Maximal Abbreviated Injury Scale Score (ABI)> or =4 were significantly associated with death.
Summary
Original Articles
Supraventricular Arrhythmias in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit
Song Soo Yang, Suk Kyung Hong
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):85-90.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Supraventricular arrhythmia is a well-known complication of cardiothoracic surgery, and is common in patients wirth underlying cardiovascular disease. Also, it's treatment and prognosis are well known. However the incidence, the contributing factors, and the prognosis for supraventricular arrhythmias in noncardiothoracic surgical patients are less well known. This study was undertaken to investigate the incidence, the clinical presentation, the prognosis, and the factors comtributing to the prognosis for supraventricular arrhythmia in the surgical intensive care unit.
METHODS
We performed a retrospective study of 34 patients with newly developed or aggravated supraventricular arrhythmias in the surgical intensive care unit between March 2004 and February 2005. The incidence, the risk factors, and the prognosis of supraventricular arrhythmias were analyzed.
RESULTS
During a 12month period, the incidence of supraventricular arrhythmia was 1.79% (34/1896). Most patients had pre-existing cardiovascular disease and sepsis. The mortality rate was 29.4%, and the most common cause of death was multiple organ failure due to septic shock. The mean value of the APACHE II score was 20.9, and the surgical intensive care unit and the hospital lengths of stay were 9.9 days and 25.8 days, respectively. The APACHE II score measured when the arrhythmia developed was a significant factor in predicting mortality, CONCLUSION: Supraventricular arrhythmias result in increased mortality and increased length of stay in both the surgical intensive care unit and the hospital. The arrhythmia itself did not cause death, but a high APACHE II score incicated a poor prognosis. This may reflect the severity of the illness rather than an independent contributor to mortality.
Summary
Influence of Multiple Rib Fracture upon Traumatic Hemo-pneumothorax
Seung Joon Yang, Jewon Lee, Sang Chan Jin, Myeong Don Joo, Woo Ik Choi
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):91-99.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Multiple rib fracture (MRF) and a hemopneumothorax accompany with most blunt chest traumas. We aimed to analyze the factors increasing the probability of a hemopneumothorax. In addition, other injuries accompanying MRF were analyzed.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 154 mutiple rib fracture patients who visited our hospital between January 2005 and December 2007. The medical records were reviewed for sex, age, mechanism of injury, location, number of fractures, distance of dislocated rib fragments, and presence of complications. We measured the distance of bony dislocations by using the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System).
RESULTS
The average number of rib fractures was 3.7+/-2.1, and the number of rib fractures significantly influenced the incidence of a hemothorax (p<0.001). The risk of a phemothorax was increased in a bilateral MRF compared to a unilateral MRF (p=0.027). The distance of dislocated rib fragments influenced the probability of a hemothorax significantly (p=0.018), and subcutaneous emphysema and lung contusion were significantly associated with a pneumothorax (p=0.021, p=0.036).
CONCLUSION
The number of MRFs did not influence the risk for a pneumothorax, but did influence the risk for a hemothorax. The laterality, distance of dislocation, also had an influence on the risk for a hemothorax. Also, subcutaneous emphysema and lung contusion were increased in cases with a pneumothorax. We must consider the possibility of a hemothorax even when the initial chest X-ray shows no evidence of a hemothorax. If a lung contusion is present, then an occult pneumothorax must be considered.
Summary
Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Pulmonary Contusion with Traumatic Lung Cyst
Yong Hwan Kim, Sung Youl Hyun, Jin Joo Kim, Chung Kwon Kim, Yong Su Lim, Hyuk Jun Yang, Mi Jin Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):100-107.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A traumatic lung cyst (TLC) is a rare complication and is usually detected with a pulmonary contusion. This study attempted to identify the prognostic factors and the clinical characteristics for pulmonary contusion with TLCs.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and chest CT findings of 71 TLC patients who visited our hospital from January 2006 to December 2007. Patients were assessed for any clinical characteristics. We evaluated significant differences between the survival and the death groups for patients with a traumatic lung cyst.
RESULTS
The male-to-female ratio of patients with TLCs was 54:17, and the mean age of the patients was 37.70 +/- 19.78 years with 36.6% of the patients being under 30 years fo age. The cause of blunt thoracic trauma was mainly pedestrian traffic accidents (26.8%) and falls (25.4%). Associated conditions included pulmonary contusion in 68 patients (95.7%), hemopneumothorax in 63 patients (88.7%), and rib fracture in 52 patitents (73.2%). There was no consistent relationship between the number of TLCs and the pulmonary contusion score. The overall mortality rate of TLC patients was 26.8%. Death correlated with a need for ventilatory assistance, mean arterial pressure, worst mean arterial pressure in 24 hours, initial pH and base excess, worst pH and base excess in 24 hours, refractory shock, initial GCS score, and pulmonary contusion score.
CONCLUSION
The presence of the aforementioned predictors indicate serious injury, which is the main determinant of the outcome for thoracic injuries with TLCs.
Summary
The Relationship between Blood Transfusion and Mortality in Trauma Patients
Se Young Choi, Jun Ho Lee, Young Cheol Choi
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):108-114.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Using a propensity analysis, a recent study reported that blood transfusion might not be an independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients, which contradicted the RESULTS of earlier studies. This study aims to reveal whether or not blood transfusion is an independent predictor of mortality in trauma patients.
METHODS
A total of three hundred fifty consecutive trauma patients who were admitted to our emergency center from January 2004 to October 2005 and who underwent an arterial blood gas analysis and a venous blood analysis were included in this study. Their medical records were collected prospectively and retrospectively. Using a multivariate logistic analysis, data on the total population and on the propensity-score -matched population were retrospectively analyzed for association with mortality.
RESULTS
Of the three hundred fifty patients, one hundred twenty-nine (36.9%) received a blood transfusion. These patients were older (mean age: 48 vs. 44 years; p=0.019) and had a higher mortality rate (27.9% vs.7.7%; p<0.001). In the total population, the multivariate analysis revealed that the Glasgow coma scale score, the systolic blood pressure, bicarbonate, the need for respiratory support, past medical history of heart disease, the amount of blood transfusion for 24 hours, and hemoglobin were associated with mortality. In thirty-seven pairs of patients matched with a propensity score, potassium, new injury severity score, amount of blood transfusion for 24 hours, and pulse rate were associated with mortality in the multivariate analysis. Therefore, blood transfusion was a significant independent predictor of mortality in trauma patients.
CONCLUSION
Blood transfusion was revealed to be a significant independent predictor of mortality in the total population of trauma patients and in the propensity-score-matched population.
Summary
Prognosis and Clinical Outcome of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Trauma Patients
Dong Gil Oh, Min Soo Cho, Keum Seok Bae, Sung Joon Kang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):115-119.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Abrupt abstinence from alcohol in cause of chronic alcohol addiction can trigger alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The authors studied the effect of post-operative alcohol withdrawal syndrome in patients who require intensive care due to trauma.
METHODS
For the study group, we selected 70 patients who had undergone emergency surgery from May 2003 to March 2007 due to trauma and who had been treated with prophylactic thiamine. Data was collected retrospectively. We excluded those who extended their hospital stay for other than traumatic causes, those who died within 3 days of surgery after trauma, those who transferred to other institutions, and those who received a psychiatric diagnosis. Patient groups were determined by the existence or the non-existence of withdrawal syndrome. Age, sex, injury mechanism, mortality, complications, durations of hospital stay and intensive care, use of mechanical ventilator, and sedative use were investigated. A Chi-square test and The Mann-Whitney method were used for statistical analysis in this study.
RESULTS
Twenty-four (24) patients from the 58 who had an ISS of 16 or more showed alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and men were shown to be affected with the syndrome significantly more than women. Although ISS was higher in the group with alcohol withdrawal syndrome, statistically, the difference was not significant (p<0.08). The total hospital stay in the patient group with alcohol withdrawal syndrome was on average 10 days longer. However, the difference was not significant (p<0.054). The duration of intensive care in the patient group with alcohol withdrawal syndrome was significantly longer (p<0.029). The patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome showed no significant difference in the duration of mechanical ventilator use (p<0.783), or in the duration of sedative use (p<0.284). Respiratory distress, pneumonia, upper airway infection, sepsis, acute renal failure, and mortality in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome group were investigated, but no statistically significant difference were noted.
CONCLUSION
We found that the duration of intensive care in chronic alcohol abusers was longer due to the development of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We also discovered that, when the patients overcame the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome after intensive care, no difference was found in the frequency of developing complications, the morbidity, and the mortality. Therefore, we conclude that intensive care in trauma patients who are chronic alcohol abusers decreases the incidence of complications found in patients with postoperative alcohol withdrawal syndrome and does not adversely impact the prognoses for those patients.
Summary
Time Course of Inducible NOS Expression of Lung Tissue during Sepsis in a Rat Model
Joong Hee Kim, Seong Chun Kim, Woon Yong Kwon, Gil Joon Suh, Yeo Kyu Youn
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):120-127.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Many studies on the time course of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression have been performed in the LPS (Lipopolysaccharide)-induced endotoxemic model, but there have been few experimental approaches to continuous peritonitis-induced sepsis model. We conducted this study to establish basic data for future sepsis-related research by investigating the time course of iNOS gene expression and the relationship with the production of inflammatory mediators in the early sepsis model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP).
METHODS
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were operated on by sing the CLP method to induce of peritonitis; and then, they were sacrificed and samples of blood and lung tissues were obtained at various times (1,2,3,6,9 and 12 h after CLP). We observed the expression of iNOS mRNA from lung tissues and measured the synthesis of nitric oxide, IL-1beta , and TNF-alpha from the blood.
RESULTS
iNOS mRNA began to be expressed at 3 h and was maintained untill 12 h after CLP. The nitric oxide concentration was increased significantly at 6 h, reached its peak level at 9 h, and maintained a plateau untill 12 h after CLP. TNF-alpha began to be detected at 3 h, increased gradually, and decreased steeply from 9 h after CLP. IL-1beta showed its peak level at 6 h after CLP, and tended to decrease without significance.
CONCLUSION
We observed that the iNOS gene was expressed later in peritonitis-induced sepsis than in LPSinduced sepsis. Nitric oxide and key inflammatory mediators were also expressed later in peritonitis-induced sepsis than in LPS-induced sepsis.
Summary
Clinical Feature of Iatrogenic Vascular Injury
Su Jin Kim, Tae Seung Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):128-135.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
As the care of surgical patients becomes increasingly complex and catheter-based techniques are more frequently applied, the pattern of iatrogenic vascular injuries may be increasing. Major vascular injuries can jeopardize a patient's life or limb survival. The purpose of this study was to examine the current etiology and prognosis for iatrogenic vascular injuries.
METHODS
We reviewed medical records of 29 cases of iatrogenic vascular injury that were treated Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between October 2003 and October 2008. We studied clinical variables including demographics, cause of injury, clinical presentations, management and prognosis.
RESULTS
The mean age was 60.8 years (range: 25-86), and the male to female ratio was 1.9 : 1. The causes of injuries were operation related complication in 18 cases (62.1%), endovascular intervention and diagnostic angiography in 11 cases (37.9%). The types of vascular injury were partial severance in 14 cases, pseudoaneurysm in 8, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in 3, thrombosis in 2, complete severance in 2. Especially, device related complication including percutaneous closing device were occurred in 9 and the others came from inadvertent physician's procedure. Primary repair were done in 12 cases, end-to-end anastomosis in 5, interposition graft in 4, ligation in 2, patch angioplasty in 1, peudoaneurysm excision and arteriorrhaphy in 1, hematoma evacuation in 1, and endovascular repair in 3. There were 2 cases of mortality, one of them due to hemorrhagic shock and the other due to septic shock.
CONCLUSION
Proper selection of treatment modalities should be important to have better outcome according to the type of injury as well as anatomical location. Each physician should be familiar to new device as well as patient's topographical feature. Immediate referral to vascular specialist is also essential to reduce morbidity.
Summary
Case Reports
Emergency Repair Using Cervico-median Sternotomy for Cervicothoracic Penetrating Injury
Hyun Joo Lee, Hyun Koo Kim, Young Ho Choi
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):136-139.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A great variety of penetrating injuries is happening due to the increasing population and violence today. An optimal surgical approach is the key factor for successful repair of a complicated penetrating injury. A 23-yearold woman fell down the stairs from the second floor and received cervico-thoracic penetration injury due to a metalic bar. The metalic bar ruptured the right jugular vein and penetrated the left upper and lower lung. Under cervico-median sternotomy, neck vessels were repaired and the left thorax was successfully entered to repair the damaged lung through the mediastinal pleura. With this approach, the patient's position did not need to be changed during operation, while reduced the operation time compared to the conventional approach (cervical incision and standard thoracotomy).
Summary
Early Resurfacing Using Gastrocnemius Muscle Flap Transposition for Degloving Injury with Exposure of Proximal Tibia
Hii Sun Jeong, Hye Kyung Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):140-143.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Degloving injuries result from the tangential force against the skin surface, with resultant separation of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue from the rigid underlying muscle and fascia. These injuries are associated with extensive soft tissue loss and occasionally with exposure of bone, and they require reconstructive modality for resurfacing and successful rehabilitation that considers the vascular anatomy and the timing of the operation. A 19-year-old male patient was transferred to our facility with degloving injury extending from the lower third of the right thigh to the malleolar area. The tibial bone was exposed to a size of 2x3.5 cm2 on the upper third of the lower leg at the posttraumatic third day. The exposed soft tissue was healthy, and the patient did not have any other associated disease. At the posttraumatic sixth day, one-stage resurfacing was performed with a medial gastrocnemius muscle flap transposition for the denuded bone and a split-thickness skin graft for the entire raw surface. The transposed gastrocnemius muscle attained its anatomical shape quickly, and the operating time was relatively short. No transfusion was needed. This early reconstruction prevented the accumulation of chronic granulation tissue, which leads to contracture of the wound and joint. The early correction of the gastrocnemius muscle flap transposition made early rehabilitation possible, and the patient recovered a nearly full range of motion at the injured knee joint. The leg contour was almost symmetric at one month postoperatively.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury