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Volume 20(2); December 2007
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Original Articles
Significance of Serum Ferritin in Multiple Trauma Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Yae Sub Ji, Nak Hee Kim, Ho Geun Jung, Dong Yeup Ha, Ki Hoon Jung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):57-64.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Clinically, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurs within 72 hours after acute exposure of risk factors. Because of its high fatality rate once ARDS progresses, early detection and management are essential to reduce the mortality rate. Accordingly, studies on early changes of ARDS were started, and serum ferritin, as well the as injury severity score (ISS), which has been addressed in previous studies, thought to be an early predictive indicator for ARDS METHODS: From March 2003 to March 2005, we investigated 50 trauma patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit in Dongguk University Medical Center, Gyeongju. The patients were characterized according to age, sex, ISS, onset of ARDS, time onset of ARDS, serum ferritin level (posttraumatic 1st & 2nd day), amount of transfused blood, and death. Abdominal computed topography was performed as an early diagnostic tool to evaluate the onset of ARDS according to its diagnostic criteria. The serum ferritin was measured by using a VIDAS(R) Ferritin (bioMeriux, Marcy-1' Etoile, France) kit with an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay method. For statistical analysis, Windows SPSS 13.0 and MedCalc were used to confirm the probability of obtaining a predictive measure from the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve.
RESULTS
The ISS varied from 14 to 66 (mean: 33.8) whereas the onset of ARDS could be predicted with the score above 30 (sensitivity: 90.0%, specificity: 60.0%, p<0.05). On the posttraumatic 1st day, the serum ferritin levels were measured to be from 31 mg/dL to 1,200 mg/dL (mean: 456 mg/dL), and the onset of ARDS could be predicted when the value was over 340 mg/dL (sensitivity: 80.0%, specificity: 65.0%, p<0.05). On the posttraumatic 2nd day , the serum ferritin levels were measured to be from 73 mg/dL to 1,200 mg/dL (mean: 404 mg/dL), and the onset of ARDS could be predicted when the value was over 627 mg/dL (sensitivity: 60.0%, specificity: 92.5%, p<0.05). The serum ferritin levels and the ISS were significantly higher on the posttraumatic 1st and 2nd day in the ARDS group, suggesting that they are suitable indices predicting the onset of ARDS, however relationship between the serum ferritin levels and the ISS was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION
In this study, we discovered increasing serum ferritin levels in multiple- trauma patients on the posttraumatic 1st & 2nd day and concluded that both the serum ferritin level and the ISS were good predictors of ARDS. Although they do not show statistically significant relationship to each other, they can be used as independent predictive measures for ARDS. Since ARDS causes high mortality, further studies, including the types of surgery and the methods of anesthesia on a large number of patients are essential to predict the chance of ARDS earlier and to reduce the incidence of death.
Summary
Qualitative Analysis of the Tetanus Antibody in Korean Army personnel after Visiting a Tertiary Armed Forces Hospital
Chung Kwon Kim, Jong Hwan Shin
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):65-71.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
In the Korean armed forces, vaccination against tetanus is done when personnel join the military service, but we do not know how many military personnel are vaccinated and how many soldiers have protection against tetanus. We performed a qualitative analysis of the tetanus antibody in Korean military personnel by using the TQS (Tetanus Quick Stick) METHODS: This study used a prospective collection method for military personnel visiting to the emergency department of a tertiary armed forces hospital from July 2005 to January 2007. We performed an analysis by using the TQS and asked whether the personnel had been inoculated during military service.
RESULTS
The number of enrolled military personnel was 474. Among them, 412 had been vaccinated against tetanus after entering the military service. The positive rate of TQS was 91.3% (373 patients) after vaccination for tetanus.
CONCLUSION
Many military personnel were inoculated with tetanus toxoid during military service and have protective antibodies for tetanus. According as TQS should be used for military personnel who visit the emergency department of an armed forces hospital. Also, anti-tetanus immunoglobulin should not normally be used a positive TQS for tetanus prophylaxis.
Summary
Original article
Fixation of Open Alveolar Bone Fractures: Easily Applicable Method in the Emergency Department
Seung Hwan Seol, Soo Hyun Cha, Sang Cheon Choi, Jung Hwan Ahn, Gi Woon Kim, Hea Kyung Choi, Joon Pil Cho, Yoon Seok Jung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):72-76.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate the fixation method for treating alveolar fractures in an emergency department.
METHODS
The efficiency of using the fixation method was judged on the basis of clinical criteria. Stability, occlusion state, bleeding amount after fixation, operation time, and difficulties during procedural operation were recorded.
RESULTS
Eight patients were enrolled in this study. In all instances, the fixation method was effective in bleeding control. Each patient had a noticeable decrement in bleeding. A wire was used for four of the eight patients, and nylon strings was used for the others. The average operation time was 6.3 minutes for the wire patients and 2.8 minutes for the Nylon string patients. No specific problem was identified during the procedural operation. However, the difference in the fixation material influenced the effectiveness of the procedure, the operation time, and the satisfaction of the doctor.
CONCLUSION
In the emergency department, the fixation method using wire or nylon string in the treatment of alveolar fractures is effective in bleeding control.
Summary
Original Articles
The Effect of Application of Injury Area to Overcrowding Indices in Local Emergency Department
Jin Wook Kang, Sang Do Shin, Gil Joon Suh, Eun Young You, Kyoung Jun Song
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):77-82.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
S: There have been many efforts to improve the service of emergency centers. In spite of these, no evidence is showing any landmark advancement of emergency services, especially in the hospital stage, exists. We need some efficient standard criteria to evaluate emergency service in the hospital stage, and a useful method might utilize the overcrowding index. We want to know the change in the overcrowding index at a regional emergency center after injury area administration. Injury area means an area in which only an assigned duty physician manages patients with injuries such as those from traffic accidents, falls, assualts, collisions, lacerations, amputations, burns, intoxication, asphyxia, drowning, animal bites, sexual assualts, etc.
METHODS
We started to operate an injury area in our emergency department from late 2004, and from January to June in 2004 and in 2005, we collected patients' data, age, sex, assigned department, and result from hospital order communication system to figure out overcrowding indices and result indices. We found the daily number of patients, the turnover rate, the admission rate, the ICU admission rate, the emergency operation rate, the ED stay duration, and the ED patient volume to be overcrowding indices. Also we found the withdrawal rate, the transfer rate, and mortality to be result indices. We compared these indices between 2004 to 2005 by using a t-test.
RESULTS
There was a significant increase in the daily number of visiting patients in 2005, overcrowding indices, such as the turnover rate, the admission rate, the ICU admission rate, and the emergency operation rate, also showed statistically significant increases in 2005 (P<0.001). As for the result indices, there was a noticeable decrease in the number of withdrawals (11.77/day in 2004 to 4.53/day in 2005).
CONCLUSION
Operating an injury area in a mildly overcrowded local emergency center is beneficial. Evaluating the effect of operating an injury area and it's impact on hospital finances by conducting a similar study analyziing patients for a longer duration would be valuable.
Summary
The Clinical Usefulness of Halo Sign on CT Image of Trauma Patients
Jong Il Jeong, Ah Jin Kim, Dong Wun Shin, Jun Young Rho, Kyung Hwan Kim, Hong Yong Kim, Jun Seok Park
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):83-89.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This research was performed to determine which clinical signs and symptoms of brain injury are sensitive indicators of skull fracture (SF) and intracranial injury (ICI) in head injured children.
METHODS
We conducted a prospective study of minor head trauma in children younger than 2 years of age for a 1-year period. Skull radiographs, brain computed tomography (CT), and data forms, including mechanism of injury, symptoms, physical findings, and hospital course, were completed for each child.
RESULTS
Of 137 study subjects, 17 (12.4%) had SF/ICI. Falls were the most common mechanism of injury, and heights of fall above 1 meter were associated with incidence of SF/ICI (p<0.05). Scalp abnormalities were not associated with incidence of SF/ICI. As for clinical symptoms, lethargy and a grouping of features (irritability & vomiting) were associated with incidence of SF/ICI (p<0.05). The incidence of seizure, loss of consciousness, vomiting, irritability, and scalp abnormality did not differ significantly between those with normal radiologic findings and those with SF/ICI. Among asymptomatic patients, 11 (14.5%) patients had SF/ICI, and among patients with normal scalp findings, 9 (12.7%) patients had SF/ICI.
CONCLUSION
Clinical signs and symptoms, except for lethargy and a grouping of features (irritability & vomiting), were not sensitive predictors of SF/ICI. Nevertheless, SF/ICI occurred among normal children. In such a case, a liberal policy of CT scanning is warranted.
Summary
Relation between Location of Pelvic bone Fractures and the Injury to the Urinary bladder, Urethra or Lower gastrointestinal tract
Chang Ho Kim, Jung Bae Park, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Kang Suk Seo, Jun Seok Seo, Jae Myung Chung, Dong Wook Je, Ae Jin Sung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):90-95.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This research was conducted to study whether the specific location of pelvic-bone fractures could increase the risk for injury to the urinary bladder, urethra, or lower gastrointestinal tract.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the data of 234 patients with pelvic-bone fractures who visited the emergency department of Kyungpook National University Hospital from January 2004 to December 2006. The location of the pelvic-bone fracture was divided into 8 parts. The association of fracture location with injury to the urinary bladder, urethra, or lower gastrointestinal tract was analyzed with Fisher's-exact test and multiple logistic regression.
RESULTS
Nineteen(19) patients had urinary bladder injury, 8 had urethral injury, and 9 had lower gastrointestinal tract injury. The following fracture locations were found to be significant; urinary bladder: sacroiliac (SI) joint (p<0.001), symphysis pubis (p=0.011), and sacrum (p=0.005); urethra: SI joint (p=0.020); lower gastrointestinal tract: symphysis pubis (p=0.028). After the multiple logistic regression analysis, the primary and the independent predictors for each of the injuries were as follows; urinary bladder: sacroiliac joint (p=0.000, odds ratio [OR]=10.469); lower gastrointestinal tract: symphysis pubis (p=0.037, OR=7.009).
CONCLUSION
Consideration of further workup for injuries to the lower gastrointestinal and urinary tract is needed for some locations of pelvic-bone fractures because certain pelvic-bone fracture locations, especially the sacroiliac joint and the symphysis pubis, are associated with increased risk for injury to the lower gastrointestinal and urinary tracts.
Summary
Clinical Analysis of Death in Trauma Patients
Whan Sik Kim, Min Su Cho, Keum Seok Bae, Seong Joon Kang, Kang Hyun Lee, Keum Hwang, Jin Rok Oh, Il Hwan Park
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):96-100.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Trauma is the 5th most common leading cause of death in Korea, but there has been no appropriate management system for patients until now. We analyzed the main causes of death in trauma patients by comparing the characteristics of those patients with the characteristics of patients who survived. We feel this analysis should have a positive effect on the development of an appropriate trauma management system in Korea.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed trauma patients who had been admitted to the Department of General Surgery from February 2002 to February 2007. We compared several expected risk factors between the mortality and the survival group. Data on the transportation, arrival time at the emergency center, amount of transfusion, initial shock index, cause of death, and initial physical condition according to RTS (Revised trauma score), ISS (Injury severity score) and TRISS (Trauma and Injury Severity Score) were collected. Patients with ISS lower than 12 were excluded.
RESULTS
Three hundred sixty-six(366) patients with multiple injuries were included. There were 40 patients in the mortality group and 326 patients in the survival group. The mean arrival time (minutes) to emergency center was longer in the mortality group (137.6 vs 93.6 p 0.04). The total amount of transfusion (ml) was larger in the mortality group (7139 vs 2470 p 0.01). The initial shock index was higher in the mortality group (1.45 vs 1.17 p<0.01). The RTS, ISS, and TRISS were not statistically different between the groups. In the multivariate analysis, mean arrival time and initial shock index were important factors for survival.
CONCLUSION
If the mortality rate of trauma patients is to be reduced , the arrival time at the emergency center should be minimized. Improvement of the emergency medical transfer service system is very important for achieving that.
Summary
Comparison of Clinical and Anatomical Differences of Vertebral Artery Dissection between Minor Trauma and Non-trauma Causes
Yeon Hee Chong, Ji Yun Ahn, Bum Jin Oh, Won Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):101-105.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study aimed to find any difference in the clinical or the anatomical findings of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) between the trauma and the non-trauma groups.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and radiologic images of VAD patients. We compared data on symptoms, neurologic deficit, National institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS) at admission, Rankin score (RS) at admission and discharge, and radiological findings including anatomical features, between the trauma and the non-trauma groups.
RESULTS
From January 1997 to May 2006, 42 patients were enrolled and 13 patients (31%) had a history of earlier trauma. Focal neurologic deficit (trauma group 11/13 vs. non-trauma group 11/29), cerebral stroke (10/13 vs. 9/29), and extradural lesions of dissection (6/13 vs. 3/28) were more common in the trauma group than non-trauma group (p=0.007, p=0.017, p=0.018, respectively) and NIHSS at admission and discharge were significantly higher (p=0.012, p=0.001, respectively). Dissecting aneurysms were less frequent in the trauma group (2/13 vs. 19/29, p=0.006). Subarachnoid hemorrhage and unfavorable prognostic value (Rankin score at discharge> or =2) showed no differences between the groups (p=0.540, p=0.267, respectively).
CONCLUSION
In VAD patients after trauma, focal neurologic deficit due to ischemic stroke and a steno-occlusive pattern are more frequent than they are in non-trauma patients. The location of dissection was most frequent at the extradural vertebral artery in the trauma group. NIHSS was higher in the trauma groups but the incidence of an unfavorable prognostic value (RS> or =2) was not significantly different between the groups.
Summary
Indications for an Immediate Laparotomy in Patients with Abdominal Stab Wounds
Hyeong Ju Kim, Seong Youn Hwang, Young Cheol Choi
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):106-114.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
There is little controversy that a classic indication such as hemodynamic instability or any sign of peritoneal irritation requires an immediate laparotomy in the management of abdominal stab wounds. However, omental herniation or bowel evisceration as an indication for an immediate laparotomy is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of these factors as indications for an immediate laparotomy.
METHODS
The medical records of 98 consecutive abdominal stab wounds patients admitted to the Emergency Center of Masan Samsung Hospital from January 2000 to December 2006 were carefully examined retrospectively. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, thirty-nine factors, including the classic indication and intraabdominal organ evisceration, were evaluated and were found to be associated with a need for a laparotomy. Also, the classic indication was compared with a new indication consisting of components of the classic indication and intra-abdominal organ evisceration by constructing a contingency table according to the need for a laparotomy.
RESULTS
Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed any sign of peritoneal irritation, base deficit, and age to be significant factors associated with the need for a laparotomy (p<0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy rates of the classic indication were 98.6%, 72.0%, and 91.8%, respectively, and those of the new indication were 93.2%, 84.0%, and 90.8%, respectively. The differences in those rates between the above two indications were not significant.
CONCLUSION
Intra-abdominal organ evisceration was not a significant factor for an immediate laparotomy. Moreover, the new indication including intra-abdominal organ evisceration was not superior to the classic indication. Therefore, in the management of abdominal stab wounds, the authors suggest that an immediate laparotomy should be performed on patients with hemodynamic instability or with any sign of peritoneal irritation.
Summary
A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of 9.6% Lidocaine of Local Anesthesia for Pain Reduction of Venipuncture in the ED
Duk Park, Ji Yeong Ryu, Gyu Chong Cho, Ji Young You
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):115-118.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA(R)) cream has been used as a topical anesthetic to reduce the pain of procedures penetrating the skin. It is generally applied for 40 to 60 minutes before the painful procedure. Because of the long application period, EMLA(R) is not useful in the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 20-minute application of 9.6% lidocaine would be useful in reducing the pain of routine peripheral intravenous cannulation in the ED.
METHODS
We examined 27 male and 19 female patients ages over 18 years of age who required intravenous cannula insertion. Intravenous insertion was performed on 46 patients: 24 patients in the placebo group (mean age: 40.0 years) and 22 in the 9.6% lidocaine group (mean age: 37.6 years). The 9.6% lidocaine or placebo gel was applied and covered with an occlusive dressing for 20 minutes. Pain was scored by the patients using a 0- to 10-cm visual analogue scale.
RESULTS
The patients in the 9.6% lidocaine group (mean pain score: 3.4) experienced less pain than those in the placebo group (mean: 5.3), and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.029).
CONCLUSION
We concluded that a 20-minute application of 9.6% lidocaine is safe and effective for reducing pain associated with venipuncture.
Summary
Reconstruction of Lower Extremities using Anterolateral thigh Perforator Free Flaps
Tae Gon Kim, Min Gu Kang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):119-124.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Management of the soft tissue defect in the lower extremity caused by trauma has always been difficult. Coverage with local and free muscle flaps after complete surgical excision of necrotic soft tissue and bone is a major strategy for treatment. There is no doubt that muscle provides a good blood supply, thus improving bone healing and increasing resistance to bacterial inoculation. However, accompanying problems are seen in cases with shallow dead space. This research was conducted to assess the efficacy of raising anterolateral thigh flaps and transferring them to the defect after complete debridement of non-viable, infected, and scar tissue as an alternative way to use local or free muscle flaps.
METHODS
From March 2005 to October 2007, 18 cases of soft tissue defect on lower extremities were re-surfaced with an anterolateral thigh perforator free flap.
RESULTS
The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 31 months with a mean of 15.9 months. All flaps survived completely. Satisfactory aesthetic and functional results were achieved. Under a two-point discrimination test, 13 patients had sensory recovery from 11 mm to 20 mm after 6 months postoperatively.
CONCLUSION
Reconstruction of the lower extremity with anterolateral thigh perforator free flaps after appropriate debridement is a good alternative way to use local or free muscle flaps.
Summary
Clinical Analysis on Patients with Traumatic Liver Injury
Hong Man Yoon, Yoo Seok Yoon, Sang Hyun Shin, Jai Young Cho, Do Joong Park, Hyung Ho Kim, Ho Seong Han
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):125-129.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The liver is one of the most commonly injured organs in abdominal trauma. Surgery has played a major role in treating traumatic liver injury. Recently, it was reported that conservative treatment could be the first-line management for hemodynamically stable patients without combined intraabdominal surgical problems. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic factors in traumatic liver injury.
METHODS
The medical records of 41 patients who were treated for traumatic liver injury at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from March 2003 to October 2007 were retrospectively reviewed.
RESULTS
Among the 41 patients, 34 cases (82.9%) were managed nonsurgically, and 7 cases (17.1%) were managed surgically. Out of the 5 (12.2%) mortalities, 2 were encountered in those who underwent surgery, and 3 were encountered in those who were treated nonsurgically. Univariate analysis showed that the initial systolic blood pressure, the initial hemoglobin level, and the grade of liver injury were significant prognostic factors for survival. Multivariate analysis indicated that initial low systolic blood pressure was the only independent risk factor.
CONCLUSION
Patients with unstable vital signs initially have a poor prognosis. Aggressive management might be helpful for improving the survival rate in these patients.
Summary
The Utility of Emergency Ultrasound for Diagnosing Wrist and Ankle Injuries
Sung Sil Lee, Dong Un Kim, Deuk Hyun Park, Hyun Young Cho, Seung Jun Ahn, Chan Young Kho, Tae Yong Shin, Young Sik Kim, Young Rock Ha
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):130-137.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Ultrasound is of proven accuracy in abdominal and thoracic trauma and may be useful for diagnosing extremity injury in situations where radiography is not available, such as disasters and military and space applications. However, the diagnosis of fractures is suggested by history and physical examination and is typically confirmed with radiography. As a alternative to radiography, we prospectively evaluated the utility of extremity ultrasound performed by trained residents of emergency medicine (EM) one patient with wrist and ankle extremity injuries.
METHODS
Initially, residents of EM performed physical examinations for fractures. The emergency ultrasound (EM US) was performed by trained residents, who used a portable ultrasound device with a 10- to 5-MHz linear transducer, on suspected patients before radiography examination. The results of emergency ultrasound and radiography and the final diagnosis were recorded, and correlations among them were determined by using Kappa`s test.
RESULTS
Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in our study. The average age was 36.6+/-19.3 years. There were radius Fx. (n=21), radius-ulna Fx. (n=1), ulna Fx. (n=1), and contusion (n=2) injuries among the wrist injury and lat.-med. malleolar Fx. (n=13), lat. malleolar Fx. (n=6), and med. malleolar Fx. (n=3) injuries among the ankle injury. Comparing EM US with radiography, we found the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EM US for Fx. diagnosis to be 100%, 66.7%, 97.3%, 100% and those of radiography to be 97.2%, 100%, 100%, and 75%, respectively. Kappa`s test for a correlation between the Fx. diagnosis of EM US and the final diagnosis of Fx was performed, and Kappa`s value was 0.787 (P = 0.004).
CONCLUSION
EM US for Fx. can be performed quickly and accurately by EM residents with excellent accuracy in remote locations such as disaster areas and in military and aerospace applications. EM US was as useful as radiography in our study and had a high correlation to the final diagnosis of Fx. Therefore, ultrasound should performed on patients with extremity injury to determine whether extremity evaluation should be added to the FAST (focused abdominal sonography trauma) examination.
Summary
Relation between Serum S100beta and Severity and Prognosis in Traumatic Brain Injury
Oh Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Kap Jun Yoon, Kyung Hye Park, Yong Su Jang, Hyun Kim, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):138-143.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
S100beta, a marker of traumatic brain injury (TBI), has been increasingly focused upon during recent years. S100beta, is easily measured not only in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but also in serum. After TBI, serum S100beta, has been found to be increased at an early stage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical correlations between serum S100beta, and neurologic outcome, and severity in traumatic brain injury.
METHODS
From August 2006 to October 2006, we made a protocol and studied prospectively 42 patients who visited the emergency room with TBI. Venous blood samples for S100beta, protein were taken within six hours after TBI and vital signs, as well as the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), were recorded. The final diagnosis and the severity were evaluated using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS), and the prognosis of the patients was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS).
RESULTS
Thirty-eight patients showed a favorable prognosis (discharge, recovery, transfer), and four showed an unfavorable prognosis. Serum S100beta, was higher in patients with an unfavorable prognosis than in patients with a favorable prognosis, and a significant difference existed between the two groups (0.74+/-50 microgram/L vs 7.62+/-6.53 microgram/L P=0.002). A negative correlation existed between serum S100beta, and the Revised Traumatic Score (R2=-0.34, P=0.03), and a positive correlation existed between serum S100beta, and the Injury Severity Score (R2=0.33, P=0.03). Furthermore, the correlations between serum S100beta, and the initial GCS and the GCS 24 hours after admission to the ER were negative (R2=-0.62, P<0.001; R2=-0.47, P=0.005). Regarding the GOS, the mean serum concentration of S100beta. was 7.62 beta partial differential/L (SD=+/-6.53) in the expired patients, 1.15 microgram/L in the mildly disable patient, and 0.727 microgram/L (SD=+/-0.73) in the recovered patients. These differences are statistically significant (p<0.001).
CONCLUSION
In traumatic brain injury, a higher level of serum concentration of S100beta, has a poor prognosis for neurologic outcome.
Summary
The Clinical Usefulness of Halo Sign on CT Image of Trauma Patients
Seung Yong Lee, You Dong Sohn, Hee Cheol Ahn, Gu Hyun Kang, Jung Tae Choi, Moo Eob Ahn, Jeong Youl Seo
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):144-148.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The management of hemorrhagic shock is critical for trauma patients. To assess hemorrhagic shock, the clinician commonly uses a change in positional blood pressure, the shock index, an estimate of the diameter of inferior vena cava based on sonography, and an evaluation of hypoperfusion complex shown on a CT scan. To add the finding for the hypoperfusion complex, the 'halo sign' was introduced recently. To our knowledge, this 'halo sign' has not been evaluated for its clinical usefulness, so we designed this study to evaluate its usefulness and to find the useful CT signs for hypoperfusion complex.
METHODS
The study was done from January 2007 to May 2007. All medical records and CT images of 124 patients with trauma were reviewed, of which 103 patients were included. Exclusion criteria was as follows: 1) age < 15 year old and 2) head trauma score of AIS > or = 5.
RESULTS
The value of kappa, to assess the inter-observer agreement, was 0.51 (p < 0.001). The variables of the halo-sign-positive group were statistically different from those of the halo-sign-negative group. The rate of transfusion for the halo-sign-positive group was about 10 times higher than that of the halo-sign-negative group and the rate of mortality was about 6 times higher.
CONCLUSION
In the setting of trauma, early abdominal CT can show diffuse abnormalities due to hypoperfusion complex. Recognition of these signs is important in order to prevent an unwanted outcome in hemorrhagic shock. We conclude that the halo sign is a useful one for hypoperfusion complex and that it is useful for assessing the degree of hemorrhagic shock.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury