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J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury



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Major Causes of Preventable Death in Trauma Patients
Youngeun Park, Gil Jae Lee, Min A Lee, Kang Kook Choi, Jihun Gwak, Sung Youl Hyun, Yang Bin Jeon, Yong-Cheol Yoon, Jungnam Lee, Byungchul Yu
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):225-232.   Published online July 29, 2021
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  • 207 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Trauma is the top cause of death in people under 45 years of age. Deaths from severe trauma can have a negative economic impact due to the loss of people belonging to socio-economically active age groups. Therefore, efforts to reduce the mortality rate of trauma patients are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate preventable mortality in trauma patients and to identify factors and healthcare-related challenges affecting mortality. Ultimately, these findings will help to improve the quality of trauma care.


We analyzed the deaths of 411 severe trauma patients who presented to Gachon University Gil Hospital regional trauma center in South Korea from January 2015 to December 2017, using an expert panel review.


The preventable death rate of trauma patients treated at the Gachon University Gil Hospital regional trauma center was 8.0%. Of these, definitely preventable deaths comprised 0.5% and potentially preventable deaths 7.5%. The leading cause of death in trauma patients was traumatic brain injury. Treatment errors most commonly occurred in the intensive care unit (ICU). The most frequent management error was delayed treatment of bleeding.


Most errors in the treatment of trauma patients occurred in early stages of the treatment process and in the ICU. By identifying the main causes of preventable death and errors during the course of treatment, our research will help to reduce the preventable death rate. Appropriate trauma care systems and ongoing education are also needed to reduce preventable deaths from trauma.



Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effects of Transport to Trauma Centers on Survival Outcomes Among Severe Trauma Patients in Korea: Nationwide Age-Stratified Analysis
    Hakrim Kim, Kyoung Jun Song, Ki Jeong Hong, Jeong Ho Park, Tae Han Kim, Stephen Gyung Won Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • TiME OUT: Time-specific machine-learning evaluation to optimize ultramassive transfusion
    Courtney H. Meyer, Jonathan Nguyen, Andrew ElHabr, Nethra Venkatayogi, Tyler Steed, Judy Gichoya, Jason D. Sciarretta, James Sikora, Christopher Dente, John Lyons, Craig M. Coopersmith, Crystal Nguyen, Randi N. Smith
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.2024; 96(3): 443.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of mortality over 7 years in a mature trauma center: evolution of preventable mortality in severe trauma patients
    Sarah Guigues, Jean Cotte, Jean-Baptiste Morvan, Henry de Lesquen, Bertrand Prunet, Mathieu Boutonnet, Nicolas Libert, Pierre Pasquier, Eric Meaudre, Julien Bordes, Michael Cardinale
    European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery.2023; 49(3): 1425.     CrossRef
  • Incidence and predictors of mortality among adult trauma patients admitted to the intensive care units of comprehensive specialized hospitals in Northwest Ethiopia
    Mengistu Abebe Messelu, Ambaye Dejen Tilahun, Zerko Wako Beko, Hussien Endris, Asnake Gashaw Belayneh, Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema
    European Journal of Medical Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes of Elderly Patients with Trauma Treated in a Local Trauma Center
    Kwanhoon Park, Geonjae Cho, Sungho Lee, Kang Yoon Lee, Ji Young Jang
    Journal of Acute Care Surgery.2023; 13(1): 13.     CrossRef
  • An Artificial Intelligence Model for Predicting Trauma Mortality Among Emergency Department Patients in South Korea: Retrospective Cohort Study
    Seungseok Lee, Wu Seong Kang, Do Wan Kim, Sang Hyun Seo, Joongsuck Kim, Soon Tak Jeong, Dong Keon Yon, Jinseok Lee
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2023; 25: e49283.     CrossRef
  • Preventable Death Rate of Trauma Patients in a Non-Regional Trauma Center
    Kwanhoon Park, Wooram Choi, Sungho Lee, Kang Yoon Lee, Dongbeen Choi, Han-Gil Yoon, Ji Young Jang
    Journal of Acute Care Surgery.2023; 13(3): 118.     CrossRef
  • Nine year in-hospital mortality trends in a high-flow level one trauma center in Italy
    Elisa Reitano, Roberto Bini, Margherita Difino, Osvaldo Chiara, Stefania Cimbanassi
    Updates in Surgery.2022; 74(4): 1445.     CrossRef
  • Decision support by machine learning systems for acute management of severely injured patients: A systematic review
    David Baur, Tobias Gehlen, Julian Scherer, David Alexander Back, Serafeim Tsitsilonis, Koroush Kabir, Georg Osterhoff
    Frontiers in Surgery.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Flat Inferior Vena Cava on Computed Tomography for Predicting Shock and Mortality in Trauma: A Meta-Analysis
    Do Wan Kim, Hee Seon Yoo, Wu Seong Kang
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(12): 2972.     CrossRef
  • Model for Predicting In-Hospital Mortality of Physical Trauma Patients Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques: Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea
    Seungseok Lee, Wu Seong Kang, Sanghyun Seo, Do Wan Kim, Hoon Ko, Joongsuck Kim, Seonghwa Lee, Jinseok Lee
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2022; 24(12): e43757.     CrossRef
  • Thoracic injuries in trauma patients: epidemiology and its influence on mortality
    Andrea Lundin, Shahzad K. Akram, Lena Berg, Katarina E. Göransson, Anders Enocson
    Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and .2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Before and After the Regional Trauma Center's Establishment
Bo Hyung Song, Sung Youl Hyun, Jin Joo Kim, Jin Seong Cho, Dae Sung Ma, Ha Kyung Kim, Geun Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2016;29(3):68-75.   Published online September 30, 2016
  • 2,028 View
  • 10 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of regional trauma center's management.
Data collected between January 2013 and December 2015 from a regional trauma center registry was retrospectively reviewed. The patients who had injury severity score (ISS) greater than 15 and over the age of 18 were included. We compared annual general characteristics, the injury mechanism, the pathway of transportation, the injury severity score, the length of stay in emergency department (ED) and hospital, the in-hospital mortality.
The annual numbers of enrolled patients were 337, 334 and 278, respectively. No significant differences were found in the annual patient's median ages, injury mechanism, ISS and in-hospital mortality. The annual proportions of coming from other hospital and the median length of stay in hospital were increased after establishment of regional trauma center. The annual median lengths of stay in ED were decreased remarkably.
Through the establishment of regional trauma center, the length of stay in ED can be reduced but not in-hospital mortality. More multidisciplinary cooperation and well-organized study is needed to reduce mortality of major trauma patients and maximize effect of regional trauma center.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Effects of a Trauma Team Approach on the Management of Open Extremity Fractures in Polytrauma Patients: A Retrospective Comparative Study
    Seungyeob Sakong, Eic Ju Lim, Jun-Min Cho, Nak-Jun Choi, Jae-Woo Cho, Jong-Keon Oh
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2021; 34(2): 105.     CrossRef
Three-year Analysis of Patients and Treatment Experiences in the Regional Trauma Center of Gachon University Gil Hospital between 2011 and 2013
Yong Cheol Yoon, Jung Nam Lee, Min Chung, Yang Bin Jeon, Jae Jeong Park, Byung Chul Yu, Gil Jae Lee, Hyun Jin Cho, Dae Sung Ma, Min A Lee, Jung Ju Choi, Seong Son
J Trauma Inj. 2014;27(4):170-177.
  • 1,244 View
  • 10 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The first regional trauma center selected in Korea was the Gachon University Gil hospital regional trauma center; expectation on its role has been high because of its location in the Seoul metropolitan region. To determine if those expectations are being met, we analyzed the patients visiting the center and their treatment experiences for the past 3 years in order to propose a standard for the operation of a trauma center.
The visiting route, visiting methods, performance of emergency surgery, the ward and the length of stay, the injury mechanism, the injury severity score (ISS), the department that managed the surgery, and the cause of death were analyzed for 367 patients visiting the center from its establishment in June 2011 through December 2013.
The mean age of the patients was 47 years (285 male and 82 female patients). A total of 187 patients directly visited the center whereas 180 were transferred to the center. Traffic accidents comprised the majority of injury mechanisms, and 178 patients underwent emergency surgery. The mean length of stay per patient was 11 days for those in the ICU and 27 days for those in a general ward. These patients occupied 4 beds in the ICU and 10 beds in the general ward per day. A total of 1.21 surgeries were performed per patient, and the mean number of surgeries performed per day was 0.49. The mean ISS was 15.91, and 183 patients (50%) had an ISS of > or =16. Thirty-one patients died; they had a mean ISS of 28.42. The most frequent cause of death was multi-organ failure. The mean number of treatment consultations during a patient's stay was 6.32. Forty-five patients (13%) were discharged from the center, and 291 (79%) were transferred to another hospital.
A systematic approach to establishing a treatment model for trauma patients, including injury mechanism, multidisciplinary treatment, and trauma surgeon intervention, is required for treating trauma patients.

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury