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J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury



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3 "Preventable death rate"
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Major Causes of Preventable Death in Trauma Patients
Youngeun Park, Gil Jae Lee, Min A Lee, Kang Kook Choi, Jihun Gwak, Sung Youl Hyun, Yang Bin Jeon, Yong-Cheol Yoon, Jungnam Lee, Byungchul Yu
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):225-232.   Published online July 29, 2021
  • 7,809 View
  • 207 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Trauma is the top cause of death in people under 45 years of age. Deaths from severe trauma can have a negative economic impact due to the loss of people belonging to socio-economically active age groups. Therefore, efforts to reduce the mortality rate of trauma patients are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate preventable mortality in trauma patients and to identify factors and healthcare-related challenges affecting mortality. Ultimately, these findings will help to improve the quality of trauma care.


We analyzed the deaths of 411 severe trauma patients who presented to Gachon University Gil Hospital regional trauma center in South Korea from January 2015 to December 2017, using an expert panel review.


The preventable death rate of trauma patients treated at the Gachon University Gil Hospital regional trauma center was 8.0%. Of these, definitely preventable deaths comprised 0.5% and potentially preventable deaths 7.5%. The leading cause of death in trauma patients was traumatic brain injury. Treatment errors most commonly occurred in the intensive care unit (ICU). The most frequent management error was delayed treatment of bleeding.


Most errors in the treatment of trauma patients occurred in early stages of the treatment process and in the ICU. By identifying the main causes of preventable death and errors during the course of treatment, our research will help to reduce the preventable death rate. Appropriate trauma care systems and ongoing education are also needed to reduce preventable deaths from trauma.



Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effects of Transport to Trauma Centers on Survival Outcomes Among Severe Trauma Patients in Korea: Nationwide Age-Stratified Analysis
    Hakrim Kim, Kyoung Jun Song, Ki Jeong Hong, Jeong Ho Park, Tae Han Kim, Stephen Gyung Won Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • TiME OUT: Time-specific machine-learning evaluation to optimize ultramassive transfusion
    Courtney H. Meyer, Jonathan Nguyen, Andrew ElHabr, Nethra Venkatayogi, Tyler Steed, Judy Gichoya, Jason D. Sciarretta, James Sikora, Christopher Dente, John Lyons, Craig M. Coopersmith, Crystal Nguyen, Randi N. Smith
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.2024; 96(3): 443.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of mortality over 7 years in a mature trauma center: evolution of preventable mortality in severe trauma patients
    Sarah Guigues, Jean Cotte, Jean-Baptiste Morvan, Henry de Lesquen, Bertrand Prunet, Mathieu Boutonnet, Nicolas Libert, Pierre Pasquier, Eric Meaudre, Julien Bordes, Michael Cardinale
    European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery.2023; 49(3): 1425.     CrossRef
  • Incidence and predictors of mortality among adult trauma patients admitted to the intensive care units of comprehensive specialized hospitals in Northwest Ethiopia
    Mengistu Abebe Messelu, Ambaye Dejen Tilahun, Zerko Wako Beko, Hussien Endris, Asnake Gashaw Belayneh, Getayeneh Antehunegn Tesema
    European Journal of Medical Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes of Elderly Patients with Trauma Treated in a Local Trauma Center
    Kwanhoon Park, Geonjae Cho, Sungho Lee, Kang Yoon Lee, Ji Young Jang
    Journal of Acute Care Surgery.2023; 13(1): 13.     CrossRef
  • An Artificial Intelligence Model for Predicting Trauma Mortality Among Emergency Department Patients in South Korea: Retrospective Cohort Study
    Seungseok Lee, Wu Seong Kang, Do Wan Kim, Sang Hyun Seo, Joongsuck Kim, Soon Tak Jeong, Dong Keon Yon, Jinseok Lee
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2023; 25: e49283.     CrossRef
  • Preventable Death Rate of Trauma Patients in a Non-Regional Trauma Center
    Kwanhoon Park, Wooram Choi, Sungho Lee, Kang Yoon Lee, Dongbeen Choi, Han-Gil Yoon, Ji Young Jang
    Journal of Acute Care Surgery.2023; 13(3): 118.     CrossRef
  • Nine year in-hospital mortality trends in a high-flow level one trauma center in Italy
    Elisa Reitano, Roberto Bini, Margherita Difino, Osvaldo Chiara, Stefania Cimbanassi
    Updates in Surgery.2022; 74(4): 1445.     CrossRef
  • Decision support by machine learning systems for acute management of severely injured patients: A systematic review
    David Baur, Tobias Gehlen, Julian Scherer, David Alexander Back, Serafeim Tsitsilonis, Koroush Kabir, Georg Osterhoff
    Frontiers in Surgery.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Flat Inferior Vena Cava on Computed Tomography for Predicting Shock and Mortality in Trauma: A Meta-Analysis
    Do Wan Kim, Hee Seon Yoo, Wu Seong Kang
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(12): 2972.     CrossRef
  • Model for Predicting In-Hospital Mortality of Physical Trauma Patients Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques: Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea
    Seungseok Lee, Wu Seong Kang, Sanghyun Seo, Do Wan Kim, Hoon Ko, Joongsuck Kim, Seonghwa Lee, Jinseok Lee
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2022; 24(12): e43757.     CrossRef
  • Thoracic injuries in trauma patients: epidemiology and its influence on mortality
    Andrea Lundin, Shahzad K. Akram, Lena Berg, Katarina E. Göransson, Anders Enocson
    Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and .2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
The Influence of How the Trauma Care System Is Applied at the Trauma Center: The Initial Experience at Single Trauma Center
Hyung Won Kim, Tae Hwa Hong, Seung Hwan Lee, Myung Jae Jung, Jae Gil Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(4):241-247.   Published online December 31, 2015
  • 1,685 View
  • 11 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
To evaluate the influence of how the trauma care system is applied on the management of trauma patients.
We divided the patients into a pre-trauma system group and a post-trauma system group according to the time when we began to apply the trauma care system in our institution. We compared the general characteristics, injury severity score, initial response time to the trauma patients, number of preventable deaths, and clinical outcomes between the two groups.
The numbers of patients in the pre-trauma system group and the post-trauma system group were 188 and 257, respectively. No differences in the patient's median ages, trauma scores (ISS, RTS, TRISS) and proportions of severe trauma patients (ISS>15) were observed between the two groups. The number and the proportion of patients who were admitted to our hospital were increased in the post-trauma system group. The time interval from trauma CP activation to emergency surgery or angio-embolization, and the patient's time spent in emergency room were shortened in the posttrauma system group. However, the lengths of the ICU stay and the hospital stay, and the number of in-hospital mortalities were not improved in the post-trauma system group. In severe trauma patients (ISS>15), there were no differences between the two groups in the number and the proportion of admitted patients, and the time interval from trauma CP activation to performing a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure was not shortened in the post-trauma system group.
Application of the trauma care system has shortened the time between the initial response and patient management. However, this improvement was not enough to result in better clinical outcomes. More trauma physicians, multidisciplinary cooperation, and a well-organized trauma management process will be needed if the maximum efficacy of the trauma system is to be achieved.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effectiveness after Designation of a Trauma Center: Experience with Operating a Trauma Team at a Private Hospital
    Kyoung Hwan Kim, Sung Ho Han, Soon-Ho Chon, Joongsuck Kim, Oh Sang Kwon, Min Koo Lee, Hohyoung Lee
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2019; 32(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics and Outcomes of Trauma Patients via Emergency Medical Services
    Dae Hyun Cho, Jae Gil Lee
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2017; 30(4): 120.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of Abdominal Trauma Patients Using National Emergency Department Information System
    In-Gyu Song, Jin Suk Lee, Sung Won Jung, Jong-Min Park, Han Deok Yoon, Jung Tak Rhee, Sun Worl Kim, Borami Lim, So Ra Kim, Il-Young Jung
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2016; 29(4): 116.     CrossRef
Early Traumatic Deaths
Seung Won Paik, Chul Han, Yun Sik Hong, Sung Hyuk Choi, Sung Woo Lee, Sung Woo Moon, Young Hoon Yoon, Woo Sung Yu, Duk Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):75-82.
  • 1,061 View
  • 6 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In Korea, trauma is the 3rd most common cause of death. The trauma treatment system is divided into pre-hospital and hospital stages. Deaths occurring in the pre-hospital stage are 50% of the total death, and 20% of those are deaths that are preventable. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to calculate the preventable death rates caused by trauma in our current pre-hospital system, to analyze the appropriateness of the treatment of traumatized patients and to draw a conclusions about the problems we have.
The study was done on traumatized patients who expired at the emergency department from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009, at the Korea University Medical Centers in Anam, Guro and Ansan. The data on the patients were reviewed retrospectively based on characteristics, conditions on admission and trauma severity. The patient's RTS (revised trauma score) and ISS (injury severity score) was calculated. Preventable death rate was calculated by TRISS (the trauma score-injury severity score).
A total of 168 patients were enrolled. All patients were intubated and underwent CPR. Of the total, 72% patients were male, and traffic accidents were the most common form of trauma (52.4%), falls being second (28.6%). Head injury, solitary or multiple, was the most common cause of death (55.4%). Thirty-eight (38, 22.6%) deaths were preventable. The 22.6% preventable death rate consisted of 15.5% potentially preventable and 7.1% definitely preventable deaths. Based on a logistic regression analysis, the relationship between the time intervals until transfusion and imaging and death was statistically significant in the hospital stage. In the pre-hospital stage, transit time from the site of the injury to the hospital showed a significant relationship with the mortality rate.
One hundred sixty-eight (168) patients died of trauma at the 3 hospitals of Korea University Medical Center. The TRISS method was used to calculate the preventable death rate, with a result of 22.6%. The only factor that was significant related to the preventable death rate in the pre-hospital stage was the time from injury to hospital arrival, and the time intervals until transfusion and imaging were the two factors that showed significance in the hospital stage. Shortening the time of treatment in the field and transferring the patient to the hospital as quickly as possible is the most important life-saving step in the pre-hospital stage. In the hospital stage, the primary survey, resuscitation and diagnosis should proceed simultaneously.

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury