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Case Report
Atypical Vancouver B1 periprosthetic fracture of the proximal femur in the United Kingdom: a case report challenged by myeloma, osteoporosis, infection, and recurrent implant failures
Sayantan Saha, Azeem Ahmed, Rama Mohan
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):89-96.   Published online March 18, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0069
  • 344 View
  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The indications for total hip replacement are increasing and not limited to osteoarthritis. Total hip replacement may also be done for trauma and pathological fractures in patients otherwise physiologically fit and active. This trend has led to an inevitable rise in complications such as periprosthetic femoral fracture. Periprosthetic femoral fracture can be challenging due to poor bone quality, osteoporosis, and stress fractures. We present a case of periprosthetic femoral fracture in a 71-year-old woman with some components of an atypical femoral fracture. The fracture was internally fixed but was subsequently complicated by infection, implant failure needing revision, and later stress fracture. She was on a bisphosphonate after her index total hip replacement surgery for an impending pathological left proximal femur fracture, and this may have caused the later stress fracture. Unfortunately, she then experienced implant breakage (nonunion), which was treated with a biplanar locking plate and bone grafting. The patient finally regained her premorbid mobility 13 months after the last surgery and progressed satisfactorily towards bony union.
Summary
Original Articles
Chest wall injury fracture patterns are associated with different mechanisms of injury: a retrospective review study in the United States
Jennifer M. Brewer, Owen P. Karsmarski, Jeremy Fridling, T. Russell Hill, Chasen J Greig, Sarah Posillico, Carol McGuiness, Erin McLaughlin, Stephanie C. Montgomery, Manuel Moutinho, Ronald Gross, Evert A. Eriksson, Andrew R. Doben
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):48-59.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0065
  • 516 View
  • 14 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Research on rib fracture management has exponentially increased. Predicting fracture patterns based on the mechanism of injury (MOI) and other possible correlations may improve resource allocation and injury prevention strategies. The Chest Injury International Database (CIID) is the largest prospective repository of the operative and nonoperative management of patients with severe chest wall trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the MOI is associated with the resulting rib fracture patterns. We hypothesized that specific MOIs would be associated with distinct rib fracture patterns.
Methods
The CIID was queried to analyze fracture patterns based on the MOI. Patients were stratified by MOI: falls, motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), motorcycle collisions (MCCs), automobile-pedestrian collisions, and bicycle collisions. Fracture locations, associated injuries, and patient-specific variables were recorded. Heat maps were created to display the fracture incidence by rib location.
Results
The study cohort consisted of 1,121 patients with a median RibScore of 2 (0–3) and 9,353 fractures. The average age was 57±20 years, and 64% of patients were male. By MOI, the number of patients and fractures were as follows: falls (474 patients, 3,360 fractures), MVCs (353 patients, 3,268 fractures), MCCs (165 patients, 1,505 fractures), automobile-pedestrian collisions (70 patients, 713 fractures), and bicycle collisions (59 patients, 507 fractures). The most commonly injured rib was the sixth rib, and the most common fracture location was lateral. Statistically significant differences in the location and patterns of fractures were identified comparing each MOI, except for MCCs versus bicycle collisions.
Conclusions
Different mechanisms of injury result in distinct rib fracture patterns. These different patterns should be considered in the workup and management of patients with thoracic injuries. Given these significant differences, future studies should account for both fracture location and the MOI to better define what populations benefit from surgical versus nonoperative management.
Summary
Comparison of mortality between open and closed pelvic bone fractures in Korea using 1:2 propensity score matching: a single-center retrospective study
Jaeri Yoo, Donghwan Choi, Byung Hee Kang
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):6-12.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0063
  • 592 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Open pelvic bone fractures are relatively rare and are considered more severe than closed fractures. This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of open and closed severe pelvic bone fractures.
Methods
Patients with severe pelvic bone fractures (pelvic Abbreviated Injury Scale score, ≥4) admitted at a single level I trauma center between 2016 and 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients aged <16 years and those with incomplete medical records were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into open and closed fracture groups, and their demographics, treatment, and clinical outcomes were compared before and after 1:2 propensity score matching.
Results
Of the 321 patients, 24 were in the open fracture group and 297 were in the closed fracture group. The open fracture group had more infections (37.5% vs. 5.7%, P<0.001) and longer stays in the intensive care unit (median 11 days, interquartile range [IQR] 6–30 days vs. median 5 days, IQR 2–13 days; P=0.005), but mortality did not show a statistically significant difference (20.8% vs. 15.5%, P=0.559) before matching. After 1:2 propensity score matching, the infection rate was significantly higher in the open fracture group (37.5% vs. 6.3%, P=0.002), whereas the length of intensive care unit stay (median 11 days, IQR 6–30 days vs. median 8 days, IQR 4–19 days; P=0.312) and mortality (20.8% vs. 27.1%, P=0.564) were not significantly different.
Conclusions
The open pelvic fracture group had more infections than the closed pelvic fracture group, but mortality was not significantly different. Aggressive treatment of pelvic bone fractures is important regardless of the fracture type, and efforts to reduce infection are important in open pelvic bone fractures.
Summary
Review Article
Delayed union of a pediatric lunate fracture in the United Kingdom: a case report and a review of current concepts of non-scaphoid pediatric carpal fractures
Timothy P. Davis, Elizabeth Headon, Rebecca Morgan, Ashley I. Simpson
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):315-321.   Published online December 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0038
  • 688 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pediatric carpal fractures are rare and often difficult to detect. This paper reviews the current literature on pediatric non-scaphoid carpal fractures, with a case report of a lunate fracture associated with a distal radius and ulnar styloid fracture, managed nonoperatively in a 12-year-old boy. There is lack of consensus regarding the management of these fractures due to the low number of reported cases. A frequent lack of long-term follow-up limits our understanding of the outcomes, but good outcomes have been reported for both nonoperative and operative management. This case report brings attention to the current time period for the definition of delayed union in pediatric carpal fractures, and emphasizes the need for prolonged follow-up for the detection of delayed complications leading to functional impairment.
Summary
Original Article
A decade of treating traumatic sternal fractures in a single-center experience in Korea: a retrospective cohort study
Na Hyeon Lee, Seon Hee Kim, Jae Hun Kim, Ho Hyun Kim, Sang Bong Lee, Chan Ik Park, Gil Hwan Kim, Dong Yeon Ryu, Sun Hyun Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):362-368.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0027
  • 641 View
  • 32 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Clinical reports on treatment outcomes of sternal fractures are lacking. This study details the clinical features, treatment approaches, and outcomes related to traumatic sternal fractures over a 10-year period at a single institution.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients admitted to a regional trauma center between January 2012 and December 2021. Among 7,918 patients with chest injuries, 266 were diagnosed with traumatic sternal fractures. Patient data were collected, including demographics, injury mechanisms, severity, associated injuries, sternal fracture characteristics, hospital stay duration, mortality, respiratory complications, and surgical details. Surgical indications encompassed emergency cases involving intrathoracic injuries, unstable fractures, severe dislocations, flail chest, malunion, and persistent high-grade pain.
Results
Of 266 patients with traumatic sternal fractures, 260 were included; 98 underwent surgical treatment for sternal fractures, while 162 were managed conservatively. Surgical indications ranged from intrathoracic organ or blood vessel injuries necessitating thoracotomy to unstable fractures with severe dislocations. Factors influencing surgical treatment included flail motion and rib fracture. The median length of intensive care unit stay was 5.4 days (interquartile range [IQR], 1.5–18.0 days) for the nonsurgery group and 8.6 days (IQR, 3.3–23.6 days) for the surgery group. The median length of hospital stay was 20.9 days (IQR, 9.3–48.3 days) for the nonsurgery group and 27.5 days (IQR, 17.0 to 58.0 days) for the surgery group. The between-group differences were not statistically significant. Surgical interventions were successful, with stable bone union and minimal complications. Flail motion in the presence of rib fracture was a crucial consideration for surgical intervention.
Conclusions
Surgical treatment recommendations for sternal fractures vary based on flail chest presence, displacement degree, and rib fracture. Surgery is recommended for patients with offset-type sternal fractures with rib and segmental sternal fractures. Surgical intervention led to stable bone union and minimal complications.
Summary
Case Report
Radiological assessment and follow-up of a nonsurgically treated odontoid process fracture after a motor vehicle accident in Egypt: a case report
Ahmad Mokhtar Abodahab
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):411-415.   Published online November 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0039
  • 517 View
  • 13 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
An odontoid process fracture is a serious type of cervical spine injury. This injury is categorized into three types based on the location of the fracture. Severe or even fatal neurological deficits can occur due to associated cord injury, which can result in complete quadriplegia. Computed tomography is the primary diagnostic tool, while magnetic resonance imaging is used to evaluate any associated cord injuries. These injuries can occur either directly from the injury or during transportation to the hospital if mishandled. There are two main treatment approaches: surgical fixation or external nonsurgical fixation, with various types and models of fixation devices available. In this case study, computed tomography follow-up confirmed that external fixation can yield successful results in terms of complete healing, even in cases complicated by other factors that may impede healing, such as pregnancy.
Summary
Original Article
Clinical characteristics of patients with the hardware failure after surgical stabilization of rib fractures in Korea: a case series
Na Hyeon Lee, Sun Hyun Kim, Seon Hee Kim, Dong Yeon Ryu, Sang Bong Lee, Chan Ik Park, Hohyun Kim, Gil Hwan Kim, Youngwoong Kim, Hyun Min Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):196-205.   Published online September 5, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0026
  • 1,159 View
  • 48 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) is widely used in patients with flail chests, and several studies have reported the efficacy of SSRF even in multiple rib fractures. However, few reports have discussed the hardware failure (HF) of implanted plates. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with HF after SSRF and further investigate the related factors.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent SSRF for multiple rib fractures at a level I trauma center in Korea between January 2014 and January 2021. We defined HF as the unintentional loosening of screws, dislocation, or breakage of the implanted plates. The baseline characteristics, surgical outcomes, and types of HF were assessed.
Results
During the study period, 728 patients underwent SSRF, of whom 80 (10.9%) were diagnosed with HF. The mean age of HF patients was 56.5±13.6 years, and 66 (82.5%) were men. There were 59 cases (73.8%) of screw loosening, 21 (26.3%) of plate breakage, 17 (21.3%) of screw migration, and seven (8.8%) of plate dislocation. Nine patients (11.3%) experienced wound infection, and 35 patients (43.8%) experienced chronic pain. A total of 21 patients (26.3%) underwent reoperation for plate removal. The patients in the reoperation group were significantly younger, had fewer fractures and plates, underwent costal fixation, and had a longer follow-up. There were no significant differences in subjective chest symptoms or lung capacity.
Conclusions
HF after SSRF occurred in 10.9% of the cases, and screw loosening was the most common. Further longitudinal studies are needed to identify risk factors for SSRF failure.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Komplikationen nach operativer vs. konservativer Versorgung des schweren Thoraxtraumas
    Lars Becker, Marcel Dudda, Christof Schreyer
    Die Unfallchirurgie.2024; 127(3): 204.     CrossRef
Case Report
Three-column reconstruction through the posterior approach alone for the treatment of a severe lumbar burst fracture: a case report
Woo Seok Kim, Tae Seok Jeong, Woo Kyung Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):290-294.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0075
  • 734 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Generally, patients with severe burst fractures, instability, or neurological deficits require surgical treatment. In most cases, circumferential reconstruction is performed. Surgical methods for three-column reconstruction include anterior, lateral, and posterior approaches. In cases involving an anterior or lateral approach, collaboration with general or thoracic surgeons may be necessary because the adjacent anatomical structures are unfamiliar to spinal surgeons. Risks include vascular or lumbar plexus injuries and cage displacement, and in most cases, additional posterior fusion surgery is required. However, the posterior approach is the most common and anatomically familiar approach for surgeons performing spinal surgery. We present a case in which three-column reconstruction was performed using only the posterior approach to treat a patient with a severe lumbar burst fracture.
Summary
Original Article
Thoracolumbar spine fracture patterns, etiologies, and treatment modalities in Jordan
Ahmad Almigdad, Sattam Alazaydeh, Mohammad Bani Mustafa, Mu'men Alshawish, Anas Al Abdallat
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(2):98-104.   Published online April 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0068
  • 1,861 View
  • 102 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Spine fractures are a significant cause of long-term disability and socioeconomic burden. The incidence of spine fractures tends to increase with age, decreased bone density, and fall risk. In this study, we evaluated thoracolumbar fractures at a tertiary hospital in Jordan regarding their frequency, etiology, patterns, and treatment modalities.
Methods
The clinical and radiological records of 469 patients with thoracolumbar fractures admitted to the Royal Medical Services from July 2018 to August 2022 were evaluated regarding patients’ age, sex, mechanism of injury, fracture level and pattern, and treatment modalities.
Results
The mean age of patients was 51.24±20.22 years, and men represented 52.3%. Compression injuries accounted for 97.2% of thoracolumbar fractures, and the thoracolumbar junction was the most common fracture location. Falling from the ground level was the most common mechanism and accounted for half of the injuries. Associated neurological injuries were identified in 3.8% of patients and were more common in younger patients. Pathological fractures were found in 12.4% and were more prevalent among elderly patients and women.
Conclusions
Traffic accidents and falling from height were the most common causes of spine fractures in patients younger than 40. However, 70% of spine fractures in women were caused by simple falls, reflecting the high prevalence of osteoporosis among women and the elderly. Therefore, traffic and work safety measures, as well as home safety measures and osteoporosis treatment for the elderly, should be recommended to reduce the risk of spine fractures.
Summary
Case Reports
Removal of broken syndesmotic screw with minimal bone defects in Korea: a case report
Min Gyu Kyung, Chulhee Park
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):265-268.   Published online December 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0067
  • 1,364 View
  • 28 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Ankle fractures with syndesmotic injuries often require fixation, where metal screw fixation is a popular method. However, as the patient begins weight-bearing, most syndesmotic screws tend to loosen or break, and removal of such screws has been challenging for the surgeons, as the available techniques require predrilling or trephination and are associated with risks of bone damage. This study presents a case with technical tip for the removal of broken tricortical-fixed non-cannulated syndesmotic screws. It implements the generation of a small cortical window in the medial distal tibia and the use of pliers to engage the screw tip and remove through the medial side. The technique presented in the current study overcomes these limitations and facilitates minimal bone damage and reduced exposure to radiation.
Summary
Management of a traumatic avulsion fracture of the occipital condyle in polytrauma patient in Korea: a case report
Chang Hwa Ham, Woo-Keun Kwon, Joo Han Kim, Youn-Kwan Park, Jong Hyun Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(2):147-151.   Published online December 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0058
  • 1,609 View
  • 48 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Avulsion fracture of the occipital condyle are rare lesion at craniovertebral junction. It is often related to high-energy traumatic injuries and show diverse clinical presentations. Neurologic deficit and instabilities may justify surgical treatment. However, the integrity of neurovascular structures is undervalued in the current literatures. In this case report, we described a 26-year-old female patient with avulsion fracture of occipital condyle following a traffic accident. On initial presentation, her Glasgow Coma Scale was 8. She presented with fracture compound comminuted depressed, on the left side of her forehead with skull base fracture extending into clivus and occipital condyle. Her left occipital condyle showed avulsion injury with displacement deep into the skull base. On her computed tomography angiography, the displaced occipital condyle compressed on the sigmoid sinus resulting in its obstruction. While she was recovering her consciousness during her stay in the hospital, the lower cranial nerves showed dysfunctions corresponding to Collet-Sicard syndrome. Due to high risk of vascular injury, the patient was conservatively treated for the occipital condyle fracture. On the 4 months postdischarge follow-up, her cranial nerve symptoms practically recovered, and the occipital condyle showed signs of fusion without further displacement. Current literatures focus on neurologic deficit and stability for the surgical decisions. However, it is also important to evaluate the neurovascular integrity to assess the risk of its manipulation as it may result in fatal outcome. This case shows, an unstable avulsion occipital condyle fracture with neurologic deficit can be treated conservatively and show a favorable outcome.
Summary
External iliac artery injury with posterior pelvic ring injury in Korea: a report of two cases
Joosuk Ahn, Ji Wan Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(2):137-141.   Published online December 1, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0046
  • 1,489 View
  • 45 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pelvic ring injuries associated with external iliac artery injuries are rare and may be life-threatening condition. The most important factors in the managements are the immediate bleeding control and restoration of distal blood flow. We report two cases of pelvic ring injuries with external artery injuries. One case was occlusion of external iliac artery with concomitant rupture of internal iliac artery. The other case was ruptured external iliac artery. Every surgeon must understand the possibility of hidden lesions—for example, arterial rupture and thrombus—and should consider the need for embolization or thrombectomy when treating this type of injury.
Summary
Original Article
Outcomes after rib fractures: more complex than a single number
Kristin P. Colling, Tyler Goettl, Melissa L. Harry
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(4):268-276.   Published online August 5, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0096
  • 2,465 View
  • 74 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Rib fractures are common injuries that can lead to morbidity and mortality.
Methods
Data on all patients with rib fractures admitted to a single trauma center between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2018 were reviewed.
Results
A total of 1,671 admissions for rib fracture were examined. Patients’ median age was 57 years, the median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 14, and the median number of fractured ribs was three. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4%. Age, the number of rib fractures, and Charlson Comorbidity Index scores were poor predictors of mortality, while the ISS was a slightly better predictor, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values of 0.60, 0.55, 0.58, and 0.74, respectively. Multivariate regression showed that age, ISS, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score, but not the number of rib fractures, were associated with significantly elevated adjusted odds ratios for mortality (1.03, 1.14, and 1.28, respectively).
Conclusions
Age, ISS, and comorbidities were independently associated with the risk of mortality; however, they were not accurate predictors of death. The factors associated with rib fracture mortality are complex and cannot be explained by a single variable. Interventions to improve outcomes must be multifaceted.
Summary
Case Report
Humeral intramedullary nail bending following trauma: a case report
Siem A. Willems, Alexander P. A. Greeven
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(1):65-69.   Published online June 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0002
  • 2,311 View
  • 36 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The surgical approach for humeral implant failure can be challenging due to neurovascular anatomy and the possible necessity of osteosynthesis removal. We present a rare case of humeral nail bending after secondary trauma in a patient with preexistent nonunion of the humerus after intramedullary nailing. During revision surgery, the nail was sawed in half and the distal part was removed, followed by plate osteosynthesis with cable fixation to achieve absolute stability. The patient regained a full range of motion 1 year after surgery, and complete healing of the fracture was seen on imaging.
Summary
Original Article
National utilization of rib fracture fixation in the geriatric population in the United States
Jennifer M. Brewer, Leah Aakjar, Kelsey Sullivan, Vijay Jayaraman, Manuel Moutinho, Elan Jeremitsky, Andrew R. Doben
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):173-180.   Published online May 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0076
  • 2,202 View
  • 54 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The use of surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) has steadily increased over the past decade. Recent literature suggests that a larger population may benefit from SSRF, and that the geriatric population—as the highest-risk population—may receive the greatest improvement from these interventions. We sought to determine the overall utilization of SSRF in the United States.
Methods
The National Trauma Database was analyzed between 2016 and 2017. The inclusion criteria were all patients ≥65 years old with rib fractures. We further stratified these patients according to age (65–79 vs. ≥80 years old), the presence of coding for flail chest, three or more rib fractures, and intervention (surgical vs. nonoperative management). The main outcomes were surgical interventions, mortality, pneumonia, length of stay, intensive care unit length of stay, ventilator use, and tracheostomy.
Results
Overall, 93,638 patients were identified. SSRF was performed in 992 patients. Patients who underwent SSRF had improved mortality in the 65 to 79 age group, regardless of the number of ribs fractured. We identified 92,637 patients in the age group of 65 to 79 years old who did not undergo SSRF. This represents an additional 20,000 patients annually who may benefit from SSRF.
Conclusions
By conservative standards and the well-established Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma clinical practice guidelines, SSRF is underutilized. Our data suggest that SSRF may be very beneficial for the geriatric population, specifically those aged 65 to 79 years with any rib fractures. We hypothesize that roughly 20,000 additional cases will meet the inclusion criteria for SSRF each year. It is therefore imperative that we train acute care surgeons in this skill set.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury