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Factors associated with the injury severity of falls from a similar height and features of the injury site in Korea: a retrospective study
Dae Hyun Kim, Jae-Hyug Woo, Yang Bin Jeon, Jin-Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi, Woo Sung Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):187-195.   Published online November 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0042
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with the severity of fall-related injuries among patients who suffered a fall from similar heights and analyze differences in injury sites according to intentionality and injury severity.
Methods
The Emergency Department-Based Injury In-depth Surveillance data collected between 2019 and 2020 were used in this retrospective study. Patients with fall-related injuries who fell from a height of ≥6 and <9 m were included. Patients were categorized into the severe and mild/moderate groups according to their excessive mortality ratio-adjusted Injury Severity Score (EMR-ISS) and the intention and non-intention groups. Injury-related and outcome-related factors were compared between the groups.
Results
In total, 33,046 patients sustained fall-related injuries. Among them, 543 were enrolled for analysis. A total of 256 and 287 patients were included in the severe and mild/moderate groups, respectively, and 93 and 450 patients were included in the intention and non-intention groups, respectively. The median age was 50 years (range, 39–60 years) and 45 years (range, 27–56 years) in the severe and mild/moderate groups, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analysis, higher height (odds ratio [OR] 1.638; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.279–2.098) and accompanying foot injury (OR, 0.466; 95% CI, 0.263–0.828) were independently associated with injury severity (EMR-ISS ≥25) and intentionality of fall (OR, 0.722; 95% CI, 0.418–1.248) was not associated with injury severity. The incidence of forearm injuries was four (4.3%) and 58 cases (12.9%, P=0.018) and that of foot injuries was 20 (21.5%) and 54 cases (12.0%, P=0.015) in the intention versus non-intention groups, respectively.
Conclusions
Among patients who fell from a similar height, age, and fall height were associated with severe fall-related injuries. Intentionality was not related to injury severity, and patients with foot injury were less likely to experience serious injuries. Injuries in the lower and upper extremities were more common in intentional and unintentional falls, respectively.
Summary
A Pilot Study on Environmental Factors Contributing to Childhood Home Slip-Down Injuries
Jeong Min Ryu, Min Hoo Seo, Won Young Kim, Won Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):51-56.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to investigate environmental factors contributing to childhood home slip-down injuries.
METHODS
Among a total of 2,812 injured children in our Customer Injury Surveillance System (CISS), we performed a prospective study on 262 children with home slip-down injuries who visited the pediatric emergency department of Asan Medical Center between March 2008 and February 2009. We made a frequency analysis on parameters such as activities just before the accident, the presence of any obstacles or lubricant materials, specific home place in the home where the injuries occurred, flooring materials on which the slipdown happened, additional objects hit after slip down, the site and kind of injury, the duration of therapy, and the disposition.
RESULTS
Walking was the most common activity just before the injury. Because rooms and bathrooms were most common places in the home for slip down injuries, laminated papers/ vinyl floor coverings and tiles were the most common flooring materials used in the places where the injuries occured. Most commonly, no obstacles caused the children to slip down, but the furniture, stairs, doorsills, wetness, or soapy fluid followed after that. Over half of the children who slipped (58%) also collided with other than the floor itself after the slipdown, most common objects hit were the edges of the furniture, and doorsills, followed by stairways. The head and neck were the most commonly injured sites, and a laceration was the most common kind of injury. Most children needed less than 1 week of therapy, only 4 children (1.53%) admitted. There were no mortalities.
CONCLUSION
The environmental factors contributing to slip-down injuries were the bathroom, laminated papers/vinyl floors, the furniture, stairs, doorsills, and wetness or soapy fluid. Especially, the furniture, stairs, and doorsills can be both primary obstacles and secondary collision objects. For the safety of our children, we must consider these factors on housing, when decorating or remodeling our house.
Summary
The Prognostic Significance of Injury Severity Score and Height of Fall in Free Fall Patients
Kyung Su Seo, Soon Tae Park, Woo Song Ha, Sang Kyung Choi, Soon Chan Hong, Young Joon Lee, Eun Jung Jung, Chi Young Jeong, Sang Ho Jeong, Young Tae Ju
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):12-17.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
In this study, the prognostic significance of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the height of fall in free-fall patients were investigated.
METHODS
The medical records of 179 victims of falls from a height who were brought alive to the Emergency Department of Gyeongsang National University Hospital between January 2003 and December 2007 were analyzed. The age, the sex of the patients, the rate of admission, the hospital stay, the site of injury, the severity of injury, the rate of surgery, the site of the fall and the presence of alcohol intoxication were evaluated by using a retrospective review of the medical records. Injury severity was measured by using the ISS. Patients were categorized into four subgroups according to the height from where they had fallen. The data were statistically analyzed with using SPSS ver. 10.0.
RESULTS
The admission rates for the subgroups with falls of less than 3 stories were significantly lower than those for the subgroups with higher heights of falls (70.7% vs. 100%, p<0.05). These two subgroups showed statistically significant differences in mean hospital stay (17.11+/-24.88 vs. 56.73+/-49.21, p<0.05), rate of operation (30.6% vs. 53.8%, p<0.05), and mean ISS (6.86+/-4.97 vs. 13.96+/-9.14, p<0.05). In the correlation analysis, the ISS and the mean hospital stay showed the highest correlation with correlation coefficient of 0.666.
CONCLUSION
In this retrospective analysis of 179 free-fall patients, we evaluated the prognostic factors affecting the outcomes for the free-fall patients. The patients who had fallen from heights of 3 stories or higher showed statistically significant higher rates of admission, longer durations of hospital stay, higher ISSs, and higher operation rates. The most accurate factor in predicting the length of hospital stay was the ISS.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury