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Review Article
Endovascular embolization of persistent liver injuries not responding to conservative management: a narrative review
Simon Roh
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):165-171.   Published online September 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0040
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Trauma remains a significant healthcare burden, causing over five million yearly fatalities. Notably, the liver is a frequently injured solid organ in abdominal trauma, especially in patients under 40 years. It becomes even more critical given that uncontrolled hemorrhage linked to liver trauma can have mortality rates ranging from 10% to 50%. Liver injuries, mainly resulting from blunt trauma such as motor vehicle accidents, are traditionally classified using the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grading scale. However, recent developments have introduced the World Society of Emergency Surgery classification, which considers the patient's physiological status. The diagnostic approach often involves multiphase computed tomography (CT). Still, newer methods like split-bolus single-pass CT and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) aim to reduce radiation exposure. Concerning management, nonoperative strategies have emerged as the gold standard, especially for hemodynamically stable patients. Incorporating angiography with embolization has also been beneficial, with success rates reported between 80% and 97%. However, it is essential to identify the specific source of bleeding for effective embolization. Given the severity of liver trauma and its potential complications, innovations in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have been pivotal. While CT remains a primary diagnostic tool, methods like CEUS offer safer alternatives. Moreover, nonoperative management, especially when combined with angiography and embolization, has demonstrated notable success. Still, the healthcare community must remain vigilant to complications and continuously seek improvements in trauma care.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury