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Original Articles
Comparison of pediatric injury patterns before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea: a retrospective study
Geom Pil Nam, Woo Sung Choi, Jin-Seong Cho, Yong Su Lim, Jae-Hyug Woo, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):343-353.   Published online December 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0053
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
The COVID-19 pandemic led to significant changes in the lifestyle patterns of children and affected the patterns of pediatric injuries. This study analyzed the changing patterns of pediatric injury overall and by age groups, based on the datasets before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods
This study is based on the data of patients who presented with injuries at 24 hospital emergency departments participating in the Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) conducted by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The surveillance data was categorized by injury mechanism, location, activity, and severity. We analyzed the injury patterns of pediatric patients aged 0 to 15 years. Subgroup analysis was conducted by age group in children aged 7 to 15 years, 1 to 6 years, and <1 year.
Results
The study periods were March 12, 2018, to December 31, 2019 (pre–COVID-19 period) and March 12, 2020, to December 31, 2021 (COVID-19 pandemic period). A total of 222,304 patients aged ≤15 years were included in the study. When comparing the COVID-19 pandemic period to the pre–COVID-19 period, the total number of pediatric patients with injuries decreased by 38.7%, while the proportions of in-home injuries (57.9% vs. 67.9%), and minor injuries (39.3% vs. 49.2%) increased. In the 7 to 15 years group, bicycle riding injuries (50.9% vs. 65.6%) and personal mobility device injuries (2.4% vs. 4.6%) increased. The 1 to 6 years group also showed an increase in bicycle accident injuries (15.8% vs. 22.4%). In the <1 year group, injuries from falls increased (44.5% vs. 49.9%). Self-harm injuries in the 7 to 15 years group also increased (1.6% vs. 2.8%).
Conclusions
During the COVID-19 pandemic period, the overall number of pediatric injuries decreased, while injuries occurring at home and during indoor activities increased. Traffic accidents involving bicycles and personal mobility devices and self-harm injuries increased in the 7 to 15 years group. In the <1 year group, the incidence of falls increased. Medical and societal preparedness is needed so that we might anticipate these changes in the patterns of pediatric injuries during future infectious disease pandemics.
Summary
Factors associated with the injury severity of falls from a similar height and features of the injury site in Korea: a retrospective study
Dae Hyun Kim, Jae-Hyug Woo, Yang Bin Jeon, Jin-Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi, Woo Sung Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):187-195.   Published online November 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0042
  • 1,435 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with the severity of fall-related injuries among patients who suffered a fall from similar heights and analyze differences in injury sites according to intentionality and injury severity.
Methods
The Emergency Department-Based Injury In-depth Surveillance data collected between 2019 and 2020 were used in this retrospective study. Patients with fall-related injuries who fell from a height of ≥6 and <9 m were included. Patients were categorized into the severe and mild/moderate groups according to their excessive mortality ratio-adjusted Injury Severity Score (EMR-ISS) and the intention and non-intention groups. Injury-related and outcome-related factors were compared between the groups.
Results
In total, 33,046 patients sustained fall-related injuries. Among them, 543 were enrolled for analysis. A total of 256 and 287 patients were included in the severe and mild/moderate groups, respectively, and 93 and 450 patients were included in the intention and non-intention groups, respectively. The median age was 50 years (range, 39–60 years) and 45 years (range, 27–56 years) in the severe and mild/moderate groups, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analysis, higher height (odds ratio [OR] 1.638; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.279–2.098) and accompanying foot injury (OR, 0.466; 95% CI, 0.263–0.828) were independently associated with injury severity (EMR-ISS ≥25) and intentionality of fall (OR, 0.722; 95% CI, 0.418–1.248) was not associated with injury severity. The incidence of forearm injuries was four (4.3%) and 58 cases (12.9%, P=0.018) and that of foot injuries was 20 (21.5%) and 54 cases (12.0%, P=0.015) in the intention versus non-intention groups, respectively.
Conclusions
Among patients who fell from a similar height, age, and fall height were associated with severe fall-related injuries. Intentionality was not related to injury severity, and patients with foot injury were less likely to experience serious injuries. Injuries in the lower and upper extremities were more common in intentional and unintentional falls, respectively.
Summary
Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of posttraumatic hospitalized patients with symptoms related to venous thromboembolism: a single-center retrospective study
Hyung Su Park, Sung Youl Hyun, Woo Sung Choi, Jin-Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):159-167.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0052
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of trauma inpatients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) symptoms diagnosed using computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in Korea
Methods
In total, 7,634 patients admitted to the emergency department of Gachon University Gil Medical Center, a tertiary hospital, and hospitalized between July 1, 2018 and December 31, 2020 were registered for this study. Of these patients, 278 patients who underwent CTA were enrolled in our study.
Results
VTE was found in 120 of the 7,634 patients (1.57%), and the positive diagnosis rate of the 278 patients who underwent CTA was 43.2% (120 of 278). The incidence of VTE was statistically significantly higher among those with severe head and neck injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale, 3–5) than among those with nonsevere head and neck injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale, 0–2; P=0.038). In a subgroup analysis, the severe and nonsevere head and neck injury groups showed statistically significant differences in known independent risk factors for VTE. In logistic regression analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of severe head and neck injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale, 3–5) for VTE was 1.891 (95% confidence interval, 1.043–3.430).
Conclusions
Trauma patients with severe head and neck injuries are more susceptible to VTE than those with nonsevere head and neck injuries. Thus, physicians must consider CTA as a priority for the diagnosis of VTE in trauma patients with severe head and neck injuries who show VTE-associated symptoms.
Summary
Age group analysis of patients with dog bite injuries who visited a single regional emergency medical center and factors affecting wound infections
Dong Ho Kang, Jea Yeon Choi, Woo Sung Choi, Jae Ho Jang, Jin-Seong Cho, Sung Youl Hyun
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):84-91.   Published online May 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0046
  • 2,154 View
  • 52 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The aim of this study was to analyze by age group the characteristics of patients with dog bite injuries, as well as determine which factors were associated with wound infections in those patients.
Methods
We reviewed patients with dog bite injuries who presented to Gachon University Gil Medical Center in Incheon, Korea from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018. They were classified by age group: children (0–18 years), adults (19–59 years), or elderly (≥60 years). Event profiles, wound characteristics, and infections were compared across these age groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with wound infections.
Results
Of the total 972 dog bite injuries, 272 (28.0%) were in children, 606 (62.3%) were in adults, and 94 (9.7%) were in the elderly. The median age was 30 years (interquartile range, 16–48 years) and the majority of patients (60.5%) were female. The most common place of injury was at home (73.8%) and indoors (77.0%). In children, the head and neck were the most frequent sites of injury (43%), while the most frequent site in adults and the elderly (50.8% and 59.6%, respectively) was the upper extremity. The odds ratio (OR) for wound infection was 3.997 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.279–12.491; P=0.017) for head and neck injuries and 3.881 (95% CI, 1.488–10.122; P=0.006) for lower extremity injuries. The OR for wound infection was 4.769 (95% CI, 2.167–10.494; P<0.001) for significant injuries. Elderly patients had a higher risk for wound infection than other age groups (OR, 2.586; 95% CI, 1.221–5.475; P=0.013).
Conclusions
When analyzing patients with dog bite injuries, differences across age groups were found, with the elderly at the highest risk for significant injury and wound infection. It is recommended that age-specific approaches and strategies be used to prevent dog bite wound infections.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury