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Funded articles
Case Report
A step-by-step intraoperative strategy during one-stage reconstruction of an acute electrical burn injury in the neck for superior surgical outcome in India: a case report
Mainak Mallik, Sanjay Kumar Giri, M. Vishnu Swaroop Reddy, Kallol Kumar Das Poddar
Received October 10, 2023  Accepted January 29, 2024  Published online May 17, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0075    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Electrical burn injuries can cause more damage than clinical evaluations initially suggest. The energy waves penetrate from the surface to the deepest layers of tissue, causing extensive harm at every level. The neck is a critical area, both functionally and aesthetically. We present a case involving a young male patient with a severe fourth-degree electrical burn on the neck, who underwent a single-stage debridement and reconstructive surgery. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap is a versatile option for various head and neck reconstructions. However, if the donor site cannot be closed primarily and requires split-thickness skin grafting, it can result in unsightly scars and deformities. For large flap paddles, it is ideal to reconstruct the secondary defect with locoregional flaps. In this case, we successfully reconstructed the donor site's secondary defect using a contralateral internal mammary artery perforator flap, without resorting to any skin grafts. The early postoperative results demonstrated satisfactory cosmesis, patient satisfaction, and functional outcomes.
Summary
Original Article
Validation of chest trauma scoring systems in polytrauma: a retrospective study with 1,038 patients in Korea
Hongrye Kim, Mou Seop Lee, Su Young Yoon, Jonghee Han, Jin Young Lee, Junepill Seok
Received December 20, 2023  Accepted January 26, 2024  Published online May 9, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0087    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Appropriate scoring systems can help classify and treat polytrauma patients. This study aimed to validate chest trauma scoring systems in polytrauma patients.
Methods
Data from 1,038 polytrauma patients were analyzed. The primary outcomes were one or more complications: pneumonia, chest complications requiring surgery, and mortality. The Thoracic Trauma Severity Score (TTSS), Chest Trauma Score, Rib Fracture Score, and RibScore were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in patients with or without head trauma.
Results
In total, 1,038 patients were divided into two groups: those with complications (822, 79.2%) and those with no complications (216, 20.8%). Sex and body mass index did not significantly differ between the groups. However, age was higher in the complications group (64.1±17.5 years vs. 54.9±17.6 years, P<0.001). The proportion of head trauma patients was higher (58.3% vs. 24.6%, P<0.001) and the Glasgow Coma Scale score was worse (median [interquartile range], 12 [6.5–15] vs. 15 [14–15]; P<0.001) in the complications group. The number of rib fractures, the degree of rib fracture displacement, and the severity of pulmonary contusions were also higher in the complications group. In the area under the ROC curve analysis, the TTSS showed the highest predictive value for the entire group (0.731), head trauma group (0.715), and no head trauma group (0.730), while RibScore had the poorest performance (0.643, 0.622, and 0.622, respectively)
Conclusions
Early injury severity detection and grading are crucial for patients with blunt chest trauma. The chest trauma scoring systems introduced to date, including the TTSS, are not acceptable for clinical use, especially in polytrauma patients with traumatic brain injury. Therefore, further revisions and analyses of chest trauma scoring systems are recommended.
Summary
Case Report
Atypical Vancouver B1 periprosthetic fracture of the proximal femur in the United Kingdom: a case report challenged by myeloma, osteoporosis, infection, and recurrent implant failures
Sayantan Saha, Azeem Ahmed, Rama Mohan
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):89-96.   Published online March 18, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0069
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The indications for total hip replacement are increasing and not limited to osteoarthritis. Total hip replacement may also be done for trauma and pathological fractures in patients otherwise physiologically fit and active. This trend has led to an inevitable rise in complications such as periprosthetic femoral fracture. Periprosthetic femoral fracture can be challenging due to poor bone quality, osteoporosis, and stress fractures. We present a case of periprosthetic femoral fracture in a 71-year-old woman with some components of an atypical femoral fracture. The fracture was internally fixed but was subsequently complicated by infection, implant failure needing revision, and later stress fracture. She was on a bisphosphonate after her index total hip replacement surgery for an impending pathological left proximal femur fracture, and this may have caused the later stress fracture. Unfortunately, she then experienced implant breakage (nonunion), which was treated with a biplanar locking plate and bone grafting. The patient finally regained her premorbid mobility 13 months after the last surgery and progressed satisfactorily towards bony union.
Summary
Original Article
Changes in interpersonal violence and utilization of trauma recovery services at an urban trauma center in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective, comparative study
Kevin Y. Zhu, Kristie J. Sun, Mary A. Breslin, Mark Kalina Jr., Tyler Moon, Ryan Furdock, Heather A. Vallier
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):60-66.   Published online February 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0064
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study investigated changes in interpersonal violence and utilization of trauma recovery services during the COVID-19 pandemic. At an urban level I trauma center, trauma recovery services (TRS) provide education, counseling, peer support, and coordination of rehabilitation and recovery to address social and mental health needs. The COVID-19 pandemic prompted considerable changes in hospital services and increases in interpersonal victimization.
Methods
A retrospective analysis was conducted between September 6, 2018 and December 20, 2020 for 1,908 victim-of-crime patients, including 574 victims of interpersonal violence. Outcomes included length of stay associated with initial TRS presentation, number of subsequent emergency department visits, number of outpatient appointments, and utilization of specific specialties within the year following the initial traumatic event.
Results
Patients were primarily female (59.4%), single (80.1%), non-Hispanic (86.7%), and Black (59.2%). The mean age was 33.0 years, and 247 patients (49.2%) presented due to physical assault, 132 (26.3%) due to gunshot wounds, and 76 (15.1%) due to sexual assault. The perpetrators were primarily partners (27.9%) or strangers (23.3%). During the study period, 266 patients (mean, 14.9 patients per month) presented before the declaration of COVID-19 as a national emergency on March 13, 2020, while 236 patients (mean, 25.9 patients per month) presented afterward, representing a 74.6% increase in victim-of-crime patients treated. Interactions with TRS decreased during the COVID-19 period, with an average of 3.0 interactions per patient before COVID-19 versus 1.9 after emergency declaration (P<0.01). Similarly, reductions in length of stay were noted; the pre–COVID-19 average was 3.6 days, compared to 2.1 days post–COVID-19 (P=0.01).
Conclusions
While interpersonal violence increased, TRS interactions decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, reflecting interruption of services, COVID-19 precautions, and postponement/cancellation of elective visits. Future direction of hospital policy to enable resource and service delivery to this population, despite internal and external challenges, appears warranted.
Summary
Case Report
Pneumoperitoneum from vaginal cuff dehiscence following blunt trauma in a patient with a history of robotic hysterectomy in Korea: a case report
Byung Hee Kang, Donghwan Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):83-85.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0078
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Pneumoperitoneum usually presents as a surgical emergency, especially in patients with a history of trauma. However, we recently encountered an atypical case of pneumoperitoneum at a hysterectomy site following blunt trauma, indicating that immediate laparotomy may not always be necessary. In this report, we present the case of a 45-year-old woman who was transferred to our trauma center from a local hospital after being involved in a traffic accident the day before. Although she underwent an emergency laparotomy, no bowel perforation was detected. Instead, a rupture was found at the site of a hysterectomy that had been performed 8 months earlier. After repairing the hysterectomy site, the pneumoperitoneum resolved, and the patient was subsequently discharged without further complications.
Summary
Original Articles
The characteristics and clinical outcomes of trauma patients transferred by a physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service in Korea: a retrospective study
Myung Jin Jang, Woo Sung Choi, Jung Nam Lee, Won Bin Park
Received October 9, 2023  Accepted November 30, 2023  Published online February 23, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0074    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Helicopter transport with medical teams has been proven to be effective, with improvements in patient survival rates. This study compared and analyzed the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of trauma patients transported by doctor helicopters according to whether patients were transferred after a clinical evaluation or without a clinical evaluation.
Methods
This study retrospectively reviewed data from the Korean Trauma Data Bank of trauma patients who arrived at a regional trauma center through doctor helicopters from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2022. The patients were divided into two groups: doctor helicopter transport before evaluation (DHTBE) and doctor helicopter transport after evaluation (DHTAE). These groups were compared.
Results
The study population included 351 cases. At the time of arrival at the trauma center, the systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the DHTAE group than in the DHTBE group (P=0.018). The Injury Severity Score was significantly higher in the DHTAE group (P<0.001), and the accident to trauma center arrival time was significantly shorter in the DHTBE group (P<0.001). Mortality did not show a statistically significant between-group difference (P=0.094). Surgical cases in the DHTAE group had a longer time from the accident scene to trauma center arrival (P=0.002). The time from the accident to the operation room or from the accident to angioembolization showed no statistically significant differences.
Conclusions
DHTAE was associated with significantly longer transport times to the trauma center, as well as non-statistically significant trends for delays in receiving surgery and procedures, as well as higher mortality. If severe trauma is suspected, air transport to a trauma center should be requested immediately after a simple screening test (e.g., mechanism of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale, or Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma), which may help reduce the time to definitive treatment.
Summary
Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in orthopedic trauma patients and a call to implement the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen as a prospective screening protocol in the United States
Victoria J. Nedder, Mary A. Breslin, Vanessa P. Ho, Heather A. Vallier
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):67-73.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0068
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent and is associated with protracted recovery and worse outcomes after injury. This study compared PTSD prevalence using the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) with the prevalence of PTSD risk using the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen (ITSS).
Methods
Adult trauma patients at a level I trauma center were screened with the PCL-5 (sample 1) at follow-up visits or using the ITSS as inpatients (sample 2).
Results
Sample 1 (n=285) had significantly fewer patients with gunshot wounds than sample 2 (n=45) (8.1% vs. 22.2%, P=0.003), nonsignificantly fewer patients with a fall from a height (17.2% vs. 28.9%, P=0.06), and similar numbers of patients with motor vehicle collision (40.7% vs. 37.8%, P=0.07). Screening was performed at a mean of 153.9 days following injury for sample 1 versus 7.1 days in sample 2. The mean age of the patients in sample 1 was 45.4 years, and the mean age of those in sample 2 was 46.1 years. The two samples had similar proportions of female patients (38.2% vs. 40.0%, P=0.80). The positive screening rate was 18.9% in sample 1 and 40.0% in sample 2 (P=0.001). For specific mechanisms, the positive rates were as follows: motor vehicle collisions, 17.2% in sample 1 and 17.6% in sample 2 (P=1.00); fall from height, 12.2% in sample 1 and 30.8% in sample 2 (P=0.20); and gunshot wounds, 39.1% in sample 1 and 80.0% in sample 2 (P=0.06).
Conclusions
The ITSS was obtained earlier than PCL-5 and may identify PTSD in more orthopedic trauma patients. Differences in the frequency of PTSD may also be related to the screening tool itself, or underlying patient risk factors, such as mechanism of injury, or mental or social health.
Summary
Case Report
An unstable patient with a large sucking chest wound managed with gauze packing for preventing tension and bleeding control before surgery in Korea: a case report
Chang-Sin Lee, Min-Jeong Cho, Tae-Wook Noh, Nak-Jun Choi, Jun-Min Cho
Received September 18, 2023  Accepted November 29, 2023  Published online February 23, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0066    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This case report describes the management of a 51-year-old female patient who arrived at the emergency room with a stab wound to the upper right chest. Immediate medical interventions were undertaken, including blood transfusions and endotracheal intubation. To prevent tension and control bleeding, gauze packing was applied directly through the large open wound. Further surgical exploration identified a laceration in the lung, necessitating a right upper lobe resection. Postoperatively, the patient's vital signs stabilized, and she was subsequently discharged without complications. This case highlights the decision-making process in selecting between an emergency department thoracotomy and an operating room thoracotomy for patients with penetrating chest trauma. It also illustrates the role of gauze packing in managing tension and hemorrhage. In summary, gauze packing can be an effective interim measure for stabilizing patients with traumatic injuries, unstable vital signs, and large open chest wounds, particularly when a chest tube is already in place, to prevent tension and facilitate bleeding control prior to surgical intervention.
Summary
Original Articles
Chest wall injury fracture patterns are associated with different mechanisms of injury: a retrospective review study in the United States
Jennifer M. Brewer, Owen P. Karsmarski, Jeremy Fridling, T. Russell Hill, Chasen J Greig, Sarah Posillico, Carol McGuiness, Erin McLaughlin, Stephanie C. Montgomery, Manuel Moutinho, Ronald Gross, Evert A. Eriksson, Andrew R. Doben
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):48-59.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0065
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Research on rib fracture management has exponentially increased. Predicting fracture patterns based on the mechanism of injury (MOI) and other possible correlations may improve resource allocation and injury prevention strategies. The Chest Injury International Database (CIID) is the largest prospective repository of the operative and nonoperative management of patients with severe chest wall trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the MOI is associated with the resulting rib fracture patterns. We hypothesized that specific MOIs would be associated with distinct rib fracture patterns.
Methods
The CIID was queried to analyze fracture patterns based on the MOI. Patients were stratified by MOI: falls, motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), motorcycle collisions (MCCs), automobile-pedestrian collisions, and bicycle collisions. Fracture locations, associated injuries, and patient-specific variables were recorded. Heat maps were created to display the fracture incidence by rib location.
Results
The study cohort consisted of 1,121 patients with a median RibScore of 2 (0–3) and 9,353 fractures. The average age was 57±20 years, and 64% of patients were male. By MOI, the number of patients and fractures were as follows: falls (474 patients, 3,360 fractures), MVCs (353 patients, 3,268 fractures), MCCs (165 patients, 1,505 fractures), automobile-pedestrian collisions (70 patients, 713 fractures), and bicycle collisions (59 patients, 507 fractures). The most commonly injured rib was the sixth rib, and the most common fracture location was lateral. Statistically significant differences in the location and patterns of fractures were identified comparing each MOI, except for MCCs versus bicycle collisions.
Conclusions
Different mechanisms of injury result in distinct rib fracture patterns. These different patterns should be considered in the workup and management of patients with thoracic injuries. Given these significant differences, future studies should account for both fracture location and the MOI to better define what populations benefit from surgical versus nonoperative management.
Summary
Radiologic assessment of the optimal point for tube thoracostomy using the sternum as a landmark: a computed tomography‐based analysis
Jaeik Jang, Jae-Hyug Woo, Mina Lee, Woo Sung Choi, Yong Su Lim, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi, Sung Youl Hyun
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):37-47.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0058
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
This study aimed at developing a novel tube thoracostomy technique using the sternum, a fixed anatomical structure, as an indicator to reduce the possibility of incorrect chest tube positioning and complications in patients with chest trauma.
Methods
This retrospective study analyzed the data of 184 patients with chest trauma who were aged ≥18 years, visited a single regional trauma center in Korea between April and June 2022, and underwent chest computed tomography (CT) with their arms down. The conventional gold standard, 5th intercostal space (ICS) method, was compared to the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum method by analyzing CT images.
Results
When virtual tube thoracostomy routes were drawn at the mid-axillary line at the 5th ICS level, 150 patients (81.5%) on the right side and 179 patients (97.3%) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. However, at the lower 1/2 of the sternum level, 171 patients (92.9%, P<0.001) on the right and 182 patients (98.9%, P= 0.250) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. At the 5th ICS level, 129 patients (70.1%) on the right and 156 patients (84.8%) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Alternatively, at the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum level, 139 (75.5%, P=0.185), 49 (26.6%, P<0.001), and 10 (5.4%, P<0.001), respectively, on the right, and 146 (79.3%, P=0.041), 69 (37.5%, P<0.001), and 16 (8.7%, P<0.001) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Compared to the conventional 5th ICS method, the sternum 1/2 method had a safety zone prediction sensitivity of 90.0% to 90.7%, and 97.3% to 100% sensitivity for not passing the diaphragm.
Conclusions
Using the sternum length as a tube thoracostomy indicator might be feasible.
Summary
Case Report
Misinterpretation of a skin fold artifact as pneumothorax on the chest x-ray of a trauma patient in Korea: a case report
Yoojin Park, Eun Young Kim, Byungchul Yu, Kunwoo Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):86-88.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0050
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Misinterpreting radiographic findings can lead to unnecessary interventions and potential patient harm. The urgency required when responding to the compromised health of trauma patients can increase the likelihood of misinterpreting chest x-rays in critical situations. We present the case report of a trauma patient whose skin fold artifacts were mistaken for pneumothorax on a follow-up chest x-ray, resulting in unnecessary chest tube insertion. We hope to help others differentiate between skin folds and pneumothorax on the chest x-rays of trauma patients by considering factors such as location, shape, sharpness, and vascular markings.
Summary
Review Article
Biomechanics of stabbing knife attack for trauma surgeons in Korea: a narrative review
Kun Hwang, Chan Yong Park
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):1-5.   Published online January 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0057
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of this paper was to review the biomechanics of knife injuries, including those that occur during stabbing rampages. In knife stab attacks, axial force and energy were found to be 1,885 N and 69 J, respectively. The mean velocity of a stabbing motion has been reported to range from 5 to 10 m/sec, with knife motions occurring between 0.62 and 1.07 seconds. This speed appears to surpass the defensive capabilities of unarmed, ordinarily trained law enforcement officers. Therefore, it is advisable to maintain a minimum distance of more than an arm's length from an individual visibly armed with a knife. In training for knife defense, particularly in preparation for close-quarter knife attacks, this timing should be kept in mind. Self-inflicted stab wounds exhibited a higher proportion of wounds to the neck and abdomen than assault wounds. Injuries from assault wounds presented a higher Injury Severity Score, but more procedures were performed on self-inflicted stab wounds. Wound characteristics are not different between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal self-wrist cutting injuries. Consequently, trauma surgeons cannot determine a patient's suicidal intent based solely on the characteristics of the wound. In Korea, percent of usage of lethal weapon is increasing. In violence as well as murders, the most frequently used weapon is knife. In the crimes using knife, 4.8% of victims are killed. Therefore, the provision of prehospital care by an emergency medical technician is crucial.
Summary
Original Articles
Angioembolization performed by trauma surgeons for trauma patients: is it feasible in Korea? A retrospective study
Soonseong Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Soon Tak Jeong, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Sung Jin Park, Jihun Gwak, Wu Seong Kang
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):28-36.   Published online January 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0076
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Recent advancements in interventional radiology have made angioembolization an invaluable modality in trauma care. Angioembolization is typically performed by interventional radiologists. In this study, we aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of emergency angioembolization performed by trauma surgeons.
Methods
We identified trauma patients who underwent emergency angiography due to significant trauma-related hemorrhage between January 2020 and June 2023 at our trauma center. Until May 2022, two dedicated interventional radiologists performed emergency angiography at our center. However, since June 2022, a trauma surgeon with a background and experience in vascular surgery has performed emergency angiography for trauma-related bleeding. The indications for trauma surgeon–performed angiography included significant hemorrhage from liver injury, pelvic injury, splenic injury, or kidney injury. We assessed the angiography results according to the operator of the initial angiographic procedure. The term “failure of the first angioembolization” was defined as rebleeding from any cause, encompassing patients who underwent either re-embolization due to rebleeding or surgery due to rebleeding.
Results
No significant differences were found between the interventional radiologists and the trauma surgeon in terms of re-embolization due to rebleeding, surgery due to rebleeding, or the overall failure rate of the first angioembolization. Mortality and morbidity rates were also similar between the two groups. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis evaluating failure after the first angioembolization, pelvic embolization emerged as the sole significant risk factor (adjusted odds ratio, 3.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–10.33; P=0.041). Trauma surgeon–performed angioembolization was not deemed a significant risk factor in the multivariable logistic regression model.
Conclusions
Trauma surgeons, when equipped with the necessary endovascular skills and experience, can safely perform angioembolization. To further improve quality control, an enhanced training curriculum for trauma surgeons is warranted.
Summary
Emergency department laparotomy for patients with severe abdominal trauma: a retrospective study at a single regional trauma center in Korea
Yu Jin Lee, Soon Tak Jeong, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Sung Jin Park, Jihun Gwak, Wu Seong Kang
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):20-27.   Published online January 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0072
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Severe abdominal injuries often require immediate clinical assessment and surgical intervention to prevent life-threatening complications. In Jeju Regional Trauma Center, we have instituted a protocol for emergency department (ED) laparotomy at the trauma bay. We investigated the mortality and time taken from admission to ED laparotomy.
Methods
We reviewed the data recorded in our center’s trauma database between January 2020 and December 2022 and identified patients who underwent laparotomy because of abdominal trauma. Laparotomies that were performed at the trauma bay or the ED were classified as ED laparotomy, whereas those performed in the operating room (OR) were referred to as OR laparotomy. In cases that required expeditious hemostasis, ED laparotomy was performed appropriately.
Results
From January 2020 to December 2022, 105 trauma patients admitted to our hospital underwent emergency laparotomy. Of these patients, six (5.7%) underwent ED laparotomy. ED laparotomy was associated with a mortality rate of 66.7% (four of six patients), which was significantly higher than that of OR laparotomy (17.1%, 18 of 99 patients, P=0.006). All the patients who received ED laparotomy also underwent damage control laparotomy. The time between admission to the first laparotomy was significantly shorter in the ED laparotomy group (28.5 minutes; interquartile range [IQR], 14–59 minutes) when compared with the OR laparotomy group (104 minutes; IQR, 88–151 minutes; P <0.001). The two patients who survived after ED laparotomy had massive mesenteric bleeding, which was successfully ligated. The other four patients, who had liver laceration, kidney rupture, spleen injury, and pancreas avulsion, succumbed to the injuries.
Conclusions
Although ED laparotomy was associated with a higher mortality rate, the time between admission and ED laparotomy was markedly shorter than for OR laparotomy. Notably, major mesenteric hemorrhages were effectively controlled through ED laparotomy.
Summary
Usefulness of presepsin as a prognostic indicator for patients with trauma in the emergency department in Korea: a retrospective study
Si Woo Kim, Jung-Youn Kim, Young-Hoon Yoon, Sung Joon Park, Bo Sun Shim
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):13-19.   Published online January 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0061
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Trauma is an important public health concern, and it is important to increase the survival rate of patients with trauma and enable them to return to society in a better condition. Initial treatment in the emergency department (ED) is closely associated with the prognosis of patients with trauma. However, studies regarding laboratory biomarker tests that can help predict the prognosis of trauma patients are limited. Presepsin is a novel biomarker of inflammation that can predict a poor prognosis in patients with sepsis. This study aimed to determine whether presepsin could be used as a prognostic indicator in patients with polytrauma.
Methods
The study included patients with trauma who had visited a single regional ED from November 2021 to January 2023. Patients who had laboratory tests in the ED were included and analyzed retrospectively through chart review. Age, sex, injury mechanism, vital signs, surgery, the outcome of ED treatment (admission, discharge, transfer, or death), and trauma scores were analyzed.
Results
Overall, 550 trauma patients were enrolled; 59.1% were men, and the median age was 64 years (interquartile range, 48.8–79.0 years). Patients in a hypotensive state (systolic blood pressure, <90 mmHg; n=39) had higher presepsin levels (1,061.5±2,522.7 pg/mL) than those in a nonhypotensive state (n=511, 545.7±688.4 pg/mL, P<0.001). Patients hospitalized after ED treatment had the highest presepsin levels (660.9 pg/mL), followed by those who died (652.0 pg/mL), were transferred to other hospitals (514.9 pg/mL), and returned home (448.0 pg/mL, P=0.041).
Conclusions
Serum presepsin levels were significantly higher in trauma patients in a hypotensive state than in those in a nonhypotensive state. Additionally, serum presepsin levels were the highest in hospitalized patients with trauma, followed by those who died, were transferred to other hospitals, and returned home.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury