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Volume 34(2); June 2021
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Editorial
Trauma Surgeons: Heroes of a Moment
Kun Hwang
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):79-80.   Published online June 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0007
  • 3,479 View
  • 69 Download
PDF
Summary
Original Articles
Single-Center Clinical Analysis of Traumatic Thoracic Aortic Injuries: A Retrospective Observational Study
Dae Sung Ma, Yang Bin Jeon
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):81-86.   Published online June 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0019
  • 3,392 View
  • 103 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

This study investigated the clinical outcomes of trauma patients with blunt thoracic aortic injuries at a single institution.

Methods

During the study period, 9,501 patients with traumatic aortic injuries presented to Trauma Center of Gil Medical Center. Among them, 1,594 patients had severe trauma, with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of >15. Demographics, physiological data, injury mechanism, hemodynamic parameters associated with the thoracic injury according to chest computed tomography (CT) findings, the timing of the intervention, and clinical outcomes were reviewed.

Results

Twenty-eight patients had blunt aortic injuries (75% male, mean age, 45.9±16.3 years). The majority (82.1%, n=23/28) of these patients were involved in traffic accidents. The median ISS was 35.0 (interquartile range 21.0–41.0). The injuries were found in the ascending aorta (n=1, 3.6%) aortic arch (n=8, 28.6%) aortic isthmus (n=18, 64.3%), and descending aorta (n=1, 3.6%). The severity of aortic injuries on chest CT was categorized as intramural hematoma (n=1, 3.6%), dissection (n=3, 10.7%), transection (n=9, 32.2%), pseudoaneurysm (n=12, 42.8%), and rupture (n=3, 10.7%). Endovascular repair was performed in 71.4% of patients (45% within 24 hours), and two patients received surgical management. The mortality rate was 25% (n=7).

Conclusions

Traumatic thoracic aortic injuries are life-threatening. In our experience, however, if there is no rupture and extravasation from an aortic injury, resuscitation and stabilization of vital signs are more important than an intervention for an aortic injury in patients with multiple traumas. Further study is required to optimize the timing of the intervention and explore management strategies for blunt thoracic aortic injuries in severe trauma patients needing resuscitation.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Patterns, management options and outcome of blunt thoracic aortic injuries: a 20-year experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital
    Hassan Al-Thani, Suhail Hakim, Mohammad Asim, Kaleem Basharat, Ayman El-Menyar
    European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery.2022; 48(5): 4079.     CrossRef
Comparative Evaluation of Emergency Medical Service Trauma Patient Transportation Patterns Before and After Level 1 Regional Trauma Center Establishment: A Retrospective Single-Center Study
Hyeong Seok Lee, Won Young Sung, Jang Young Lee, Won Suk Lee, Sang Won Seo
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):87-97.   Published online March 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0021
  • 3,253 View
  • 128 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

This study examined emergency medical service (EMS) transportation patterns for adult trauma patients before and after establishing a level 1 regional trauma center (RTC) and to evaluate the transportation approach after prehospital severity screening.

Methods

This was a retrospective observational study of trauma patients aged ≥18 years admitted via EMS to the emergency department or a level 1 RTC, 1 year before to 3 years after RTC establishment. Patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) in the patient registration system were selected. Analyses were performed to determine transportation pattern changes by comparing patients pre- and post-RTC establishment and by yearly comparisons over the 4-year study period using the Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square test.

Results

Overall, 3,587 patients were included. The mean ISS was higher in the post-RTC group (n=2,693; 10.63±8.90, median 9.00) than in the pre-RTC group (n=894; 9.44±8.20, median 8.00; p<0.001). The mean transportation distance (9.84±13.71, median 5.80 vs. 13.12±16.15 km, median 6.00; p<0.001) was longer in the post-RTC group than in the pre-RTC group. Furthermore, proportionally fewer patients were transported from an area in the same city as the RTC after establishment (86.1% vs. 78.3%; p<0.001). Yearly comparisons revealed a gradually increasing trend in the hospital death rate (ptrend=0.031).

Conclusions

After establishing a level 1 RTC, the EMS transportation of severe trauma patients increased gradually along with the long-distance transportation of minor trauma patients. Therefore, improved prehospital EMS trauma severity assessments and level 1 RTC involvement in patient classification in the prehospital phase are necessary.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Establishment of Emergency Teaching Model and Optimization of Discrete Dynamic Calculation in Complex Virtual Simulation Environment
    He Li, Yuansong Sun, Kai Song, Chunlin Yin, Gengxin Sun
    Mathematical Problems in Engineering.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Model for Predicting In-Hospital Mortality of Physical Trauma Patients Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques: Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea
    Seungseok Lee, Wu Seong Kang, Sanghyun Seo, Do Wan Kim, Hoon Ko, Joongsuck Kim, Seonghwa Lee, Jinseok Lee
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2022; 24(12): e43757.     CrossRef
Incidence and Clinical Features of Urethral Injuries with Pelvic Fractures in Males: A 6-Year Retrospective Cohort Study at a Single Institution in South Korea
Hyun Woo Sun, Hohyun Kim, Chang Ho Jeon, Jae Hoon Jang, Gil Hwan Kim, Chan Ik Park, Sung Jin Park, Jae Hun Kim, Seok Ran Yeom
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):98-104.   Published online April 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0034
  • 3,363 View
  • 141 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Severe pelvic fractures are associated with genitourinary injuries, but the relationship between pelvic trauma and concomitant urethral injuries has yet to be elucidated. This study evaluated the incidence, mechanism, site, and extent of urethral injuries in male patients with pelvic fractures.

Methods

A retrospective cohort study was performed involving patients with urethral injuries accompanying pelvic fractures who visited Pusan National University Hospital from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2019. Demographics, mechanisms of injury, clinical features of the urethral injuries, concomitant bladder injuries, methods of management, and the configuration of the pelvic fractures were analyzed.

Results

The final study population included 24 patients. The overall incidence of urethral injury with pelvic fracture was 2.6%, with the most common mechanism of urethral injury being traffic accidents (62.5%). Complete urethral disruption (16/24, 66.7%) was more common than partial urethral injuries (8/24, 33.3%), and unstable pelvic fractures were the most common type of pelvic fracture observed (70.8%). There was no definitive relationship between the extent of urethral injury and pelvic ring stability.

Conclusions

The present study provides a 6-year retrospective review characterizing the incidence, mechanism, and clinical features of urethral injury-associated pelvic fractures. This study suggests that the possibility of urethral injury must be considered, especially in unstable pelvic fracture patients, and that treatment should be chosen based on the clinical findings.

Summary
The Effects of a Trauma Team Approach on the Management of Open Extremity Fractures in Polytrauma Patients: A Retrospective Comparative Study
Seungyeob Sakong, Eic Ju Lim, Jun-Min Cho, Nak-Jun Choi, Jae-Woo Cho, Jong-Keon Oh
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):105-111.   Published online March 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0043
  • 9,609 View
  • 112 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Open extremity fractures require prompt antibiotic medication and initial debridement surgery to reduce the infection rate and restore functional stabilization. We aimed to report the effects and positive outcomes of a trauma team approach on the management of open extremity fractures in polytrauma patients.

Methods

This retrospective review included all polytrauma patients with open extremity fractures admitted between March 2009 and December 2019. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they were treated before or after the implementation of the trauma team approach (March 2014). We analyzed the outcomes in each group with respect to the time interval until the doctor’s arrival, total length of stay in the emergency department, the time interval until initial antibiotic treatment and operation, whether the initial operation was performed within 24 hours, and the rate of deep infections.

Results

A total of 123 patients met the inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics. The time interval until the doctor’s arrival (64.12±49.2 minutes vs. 19.82±15.23 minutes; p=0.035) and initial antibiotic treatment (115.47±72.12 minutes vs. 48.78±30.12 minutes; p=0.023) significantly improved after implementing the trauma team approach. The union rate was not significantly different. However, the time interval until initial debridement, opportunity for initial debridement within 24 hours, and the rate of deep infections demonstrated better results.

Conclusions

The reduced time interval until initial antibiotic treatment and debridement could be attributed to the positive effect of the trauma team approach on the management of open extremity fractures in polytrauma patients.

Summary
Indications for Laparotomy in Patients with Abdominal Penetrating Injuries Presenting with Ambiguous Computed Tomography Findings
Eun Ji Choi, Sanghee Choi, Byung Hee Kang
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):112-118.   Published online June 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0058
  • 2,804 View
  • 88 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Negative laparotomy in patients with abdominal penetrating injuries (APIs) is associated with deleterious outcomes and unnecessary expense; however, the indications for laparotomy in hemodynamically stable patients with ambiguous computed tomography (CT) findings remain unclear. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with negative laparotomy. findings

Methods

Data of patients who underwent laparotomy for APIs between 2011 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who presented with definite indications for laparotomy were excluded. The patients were dichotomized into negative and positive laparotomy groups, and the baseline characteristics, laboratory test results, and CT findings were compared between the groups.

Results

Of 55 patients with ambiguous CT findings, 38 and 17 patients were assigned to the negative and positive laparotomy groups, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the baseline characteristics or the nature of the ambiguous CT findings. However, the laboratory test results showed that there was a difference in the percentage of neutrophils between the groups (negative: 55.6% [range 47.4–66.1%] vs. positive: 79.8% [range 77.6–88.2%], p<0.001), although the total white blood cell count was not significantly different. The mean duration of hospital stay for the negative laparotomy group was 13.1 days, and seven patients (18.4%) experienced complications.

Conclusions

Diagnostic factors definitively indicative of laparotomy were not identified, although the percentage of neutrophils might be helpful. However, routine laparotomy in patients with peritoneal injuries could result in instances of negative laparotomy.

Summary
Effects of Trauma-Related Shock on Myocardial Function in the Early Period Using Transthoracic Echocardiography
Dae Sung Ma
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):119-125.   Published online June 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0041
  • 2,488 View
  • 83 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The present study aimed to analyze the effect of trauma-related shock on myocardial function in the early stages of trauma through transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings.

Methods

We performed a retrospective review and analysis of the medical records of patients aged ≥18 years who were evaluated by TTE within 2 days of admission for trauma-related shock (n=72). Patients were selected from a group of 739 patients admitted with trauma-related shock between January 2014 and December 2016.

Results

The incidence rate of myocardial dysfunction in the left ventricle (LV) was 6.8% (5/72), with rates of 7.7% (4/52) in the thoracic injury group and 5.0% (1/20) in the non-thoracic injury group. In the diastolic function of LV, relaxation abnormality was present in 55.8% (29/52) of patients in the thoracic injury group and 50% (10/20) of patients in the non-thoracic injury group.

Conclusions

This study may suggest that traumatic shock without thoracic injury may influence myocardial function in the early stages after trauma. Therefore, evaluation of myocardial function may be needed for patients experiencing shock after trauma, regardless of the presence of thoracic injury.

Summary
Case Reports
Cerebral Fat Embolism That Was Initially Negative on DiffusionWeighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Seung Je Go, Yun Su Mun, Seung Ho Bang, Yong Han Cha, Young Hoon Sul, Jin Bong Ye, Jae Guk Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):126-129.   Published online March 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0007
  • 3,127 View
  • 77 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Fat embolism syndrome is a rare, but serious condition that occurs in patients with fractures of the long bones or who undergo orthopedic surgery. The main clinical features of fat embolism syndrome are an altered mental status, hypoxia, and petechial rash. Cerebral fat embolism is the most severe manifestation of fat embolism syndrome because it can lead to an altered mental status. The diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism is clinical, but brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) is helpful. There is usually an interval until symptoms, such as an altered mental status, develop after trauma. We report a case of cerebral fat embolism in which the patient’s mental status deteriorated several hours after trauma and the initial findings were negative on diffusion-weighted MRI.

Summary
Celiac Artery Compression After a Spine Fracture, and Pericardium Rupture After Blunt Trauma: A Case Report from a Single Injury
Joongsuck Kim, Hyun Min Cho, Sung Hwan Kim, Seong Hoon Jung, Jeong Eun Sohn, Kwangmin Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):130-135.   Published online June 10, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0053
  • 3,123 View
  • 68 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Celiac artery compression is a rare condition in which the celiac artery is compressed by the median arcuate ligament. Case reports of compression after trauma are hard to find. Blunt traumatic pericardium rupture is also a rare condition. We report a single patient who experienced both rare conditions from a single blunt injury. An 18-year-old woman was brought to the trauma center after a fatal motorcycle accident, in which she was a passenger. The driver was found dead. Her vital signs were stable, but she complained of mild abdominal pain, chest wall pain, and severe back pain. There were no definite neurologic deficits. Her initial computed tomography (CT) scan revealed multiple rib fractures, moderate lung contusions with hemothorax, moderate liver injury, and severe lumbar spine fracture and dislocation. She was brought to the angiography room to check for active bleeding in the liver, which was not apparent. However, the guide wire was not able to pass through the celiac trunk. A review of the initial CT revealed kinking of the celiac trunk, which was assumed to be due to altered anatomy of the median arcuate ligament caused by spine fractures. Immediate fixation of the vertebrae was performed. During recovery, her hemothorax remained loculated. Suspecting empyema, thoracotomy was performed at 3 weeks after admission, revealing organized hematoma without pus formation, as well as rupture of the pericardium, which was immediately sutured, and decortication was carried out. Five weeks after admission, she had recovered without complications and was discharged home.

Summary
Delayed Diagnosis of Traumatic Rupture of Anterior Papillary Muscle of Tricuspid Valve; Importance of Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram in the Evaluation of Major Blunt Chest Trauma
Ryan Bylsma, Mustafa Baldawi, Bruce Toporoff, Matthew Shin, Meghan Cochran-Yu, Davinder Ramsingh, Purvi Parwani, David G. Rabkin
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):136-140.   Published online June 4, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0060
  • 2,620 View
  • 63 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

We present a case of delayed diagnosis of traumatic tricuspid valve rupture in a patient who was emergently brought to the operating room for repair of lacerations to the heart and liver without intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Initial postoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) did not show structural pathology. One week later, TTE with better image quality showed severe tricuspid regurgitation. Subsequently, TEE clearly demonstrated rupture of the anterior papillary muscle and flail anterior tricuspid leaflet. The case description is followed by a brief discussion of the utility of TEE in the setting of blunt thoracic trauma.

Summary
Splenic Artery Bleeding into the Extraperitoneal Space Mimicking Mesenteric Injury: A Rare Case of Blunt Trauma
Sang Hyun Seo, Hyun Seok Jung, Chan Yong Park
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):141-145.   Published online March 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0076
  • 2,932 View
  • 102 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Splenic injury is a common result of blunt trauma, and bleeding occurs mainly inside the splenic capsule and may leak into the peritoneal space. Herein, we report a case where active bleeding occurred in the splenic artery and only leaked into the extraperitoneal space. This is the first case of this phenomenon in a trauma patient in the English-language literature. Bleeding passed through the peritoneum, leaked into the anterior pararenal space, and continued along the extraperitoneal space to the prevesical space of the pelvis. Therefore, on the initial computed tomography (CT) scan, the bleeding appeared to be in the left paracolic gutter, so we suspected mesenteric bleeding. However, after the CT series was fully reconstructed, we accurately read the scans and confirmed splenic injury with active bleeding. If there had been a suspicion of bowel or mesenteric injury, surgery would have been required, but fortunately surgery could be avoided in this case. The patient was successfully treated with angioembolization.

Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury