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Volume 19(1); June 2006
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Original Articles
ICECI Based External Causes Analysis of Severe Pediatric Injury
Ki Ok Ahn, Jae Eun Kim, Hye Young Jang, Koo Young Jung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):1-7.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children. As an injury prevention measure, the differences in external causes of severe pediatric injuries based on ICECI were analyzed according to age groups.
METHODS
A retrospective study was performed for pediatric patients under 15 years of age, who had been admitted to the emergency department with severe injuries from January 1998 to December 2004. The external causes of injury were investigated according to the ICECI: intent, mechanisms, places of occurrence, objects/substances producing injury, and related activities. The patients were divided into four groups based on age: infant (< 0 year), toddler (1~4 years), preschool age (5~8 years), and school age (9~15 years).
RESULTS
The injury mechanisms, the places of occurrence and the related objects/substances vary with the age groups. The most common subtype of traffic accidents was pedestrian injury in pre-school age group. Falls most frequently occurred in the toddler group. But falls from a height of less than l meter height (6 patients) occurred only in the infant group. The most common place of occurrence in the infant group was the home, and that of other groups was the road. The related objects/substances for falls, for example, household furnitures and playground equipment depended on the age group.
CONCLUSION
The age-group specific characteristics of severe pediatric injury were analyzed successfully through the ICECI. Therefore, when establishing a plan for the prevention of pediatric injury, consideration must be given to the differences in the external causes of injuries according to age group.
Summary
The Relationship Between Type and Size of Scalp Injury and Intracranial Injury Among Patients who Visited the Emergency room due to head Trauma
Yong Sung Kim, Hoon Lim, Young Soon Cho, Ho Jung Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):8-13.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Traumatic head injury is very common in the emergency room. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly reduce mortality and morbidity. When diagnosis is delayed, however, it could be critical to the patients. In reality, it is difficult to take a brain CT for all patients with head trauma, so this study examined the relationship between type and size of scalp injury and intracranial injury.
METHODS
This prospective study was conducted from May 2005 to July 2005. The participants were 193 patients who had had a brain CT. Head trauma included obvious external injury or was based on reports of witnesses to the accident. Children under three years of age were also included if there was a witness to the accident. The size of the injury was measured based on the maximum diameter.
RESULTS
Out of the total of 193 patients, patients with scalp bleeding totaled 126 (65.2%), and patients without scalp bleeding totaled 67 (34.8%). Among patients with scalp bleeding, patients with intracranial injuries numbered nine, and among patients without scalp bleeding, patients with intracranial injuries numbered 17 (P=0.001). Among patients who showed evidence of scalp swelling with no scalp bleeding, the relationship between the size of the scalp swelling and intracranial injury was statistically significant when the size of the scalp swelling was between 2 cm and 5 cm.
CONCLUSION
Among patients who visit an emergency medical center due to traumatic head injury, patients with no scalp bleeding, but with scalp swelling between 2 cm and 5 cm, should undergone more accurate and careful examination, as well as as a brain CT.
Summary
The Effect of Hypothermia on Lung Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Expression in Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
Kyuseok Kim, Jeong Hun Lee, Gil Joon Suh, Yeo Kyu Youn, Young Joon Kang, Min A Kim, Sang Ki Cho, Hyo Keun Shin
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):14-20.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Although hypothermia has been used in many clinical situations, such as post cardiopulmonary resuscitation, stroke, traumatic brain injury, septic shock, and hemorrhagic shock, the mechanism by which it works has not been clearly elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of hypothermia on the plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration, lung iNOS expression, and histologic changes in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR).
METHOD
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the hypothermia group (HT, n=8, 27~30 degrees C) and the normothermia group (NT, n=8, 36~37 degrees C). They underwent 30 min of intestinal ischemia by clamping the superior mesenteric artery, which was followed by 1.5 h of reperfusion. They were then sacrificed. The acute lung injury (ALI) score, the plasma NO concentration, and lung iNOS gene expression were measured.
RESULTS
Compared with the HT group, the NT group showed severe infiltrations of inflammatrory cells, alveolar hemorrhages, and interstitial hypertrophies in lung tissues. There were significant differences in the ALI scores between the NT and the HT groups (8.7 +/- 1.5/HPF in NT vs 5.8 +/- 1.2/HPF in HT, p=0.008). Although the plasma NO concentration was slightly lower in the HT group, there was no significant difference between the two groups (0.80 +/- 0.24 micromol/L in NT vs 0.75 +/- 0.30 micromol/L in HT, p=0.917). Lung iNOS gene expression was stronger in the NT group than in the HT group. The band density of the expression of iNOS in lung tissues was significantly increased in the NT group compared to the HT group (5.54 +/- 2.75 in NT vs 0.08 +/- 0.52 in HT, p=0.002).
CONCLUSIONS
This study showed that hypothermia in intestinal IR reduces inflammatory responses, ALI scores, and iNOS gene expression in lung tissues. There was no significant effect of hypothermia on the plasma NO concentration.
Summary
Surgical Management of Traumatic Liver Injury
Sun Wook Han, Hwa Soo Lee, Sang Ho Bae, Gil Ho Kang, Sung Yong Kim, Moo Jun Baek, Moon Soo Lee, Hyung Chul Kim, Moo Sik Cho, Chang Ho Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):21-27.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The liver is one of the most commonly injured organs by blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma. Patients with liver injury can be treated by using nonoperative or operative management. The aim of this study was to study patients with traumatic liver injury who were treated by using operative management.
METHODS
Ninety-eight patients with traumatic liver injury underwent surgical treatment from January 1995 to December 2004 at Soonchunhyang University Cheonan hospital. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively, and demographic, clinical, operative, and postoperative datas were collected and analyzed.
RESULTS
Among the patients with operative management, the peak incidence was in the third and the fourth decades. The male-to-female ratio was 1.9:1. The most frequent injury mechanism was blunt trauma (85.7%). Abdominal computed tomography was the diagnostic modality used most frequently. Severe liver injury above Grade III was seen in 80.6% of all patients, and long bone fracture was the most common combined injury. Patients were managed by using various techniques, including simple closure, liver resection, and perihepatic packing. Pulmonary complications were the most common postoperative complications (35.7%). the overall mortality rate was 17.3%. Between the survival group and the expired group, the amount of transfusion for the expired group was statistically more than that for the survival group.
CONCLUSION
Operative management is an effective treatment modality for hemodynamically unstable patients with severe traumatic liver injury. The amount of transfusion is a significant prognostic factor for survival.
Summary
Comparison of the Usefulness of MDCT (Multidetective Computed Tomogram) in Facial Bone Fractures
Yoon Gi Hong, Hyung Taek Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):28-34.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
In maxillofacial surgery, proper preoperative diagnosis is very important in achieving good postoperative results. Although conventional CT scans are useful for visual representations of fractures, they cannot provide direct guidance for reconstructing facial bone fractures. However, the recent technology of multislice scanning has brought many clinical benefits to CT images. Direct correlations can be made between preoperative imaging data and operative planning. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the differences between conventional CT and multidetective three-dimensional CT(3D MDCT) measurements in craniofacial deformities.
METHODS
From January 2005 to November 2005, MDCT scans of 41 patients were evaluated by comparing them with conventional CT scans. The 3D MDCT images were assessed and reviewed by using a simple scoring system.
RESULTS
The 3D MDCT scans offered easy interpretation, facilitated surgical planning, and clarified postoperative results in malar complex fractures, mandibular fractures, and extensive maxillofacial fractures and cranioplasty. However, 3D MDCT images were not superior to conventional CT scans in the diagnosis of blowout fractures.
CONCLUSION
In spite of its limitations, the 3D MDCT provided additional and more comprehensive information than the conventional CT for preoperative assessment of craniofacial deformities. Therefore, the 3D MDCT can be a useful tool for diagnosis and systematic treatment planning in craniofacial skeletal deformities.
Summary
Clinical Investigation of Isolated Chest Injury
Keung Moo Lee, Dong Soo Kim, Lee Suk Woo, Hoon Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):35-40.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Injuries are the third leading cause of death in Korea. Isolated chest injury is not uncommon and shows high mortality and morbidity. Several scoring systems are used for triage and stratification for trauma patients, but no standard system is accepted. We aimed to analyze the accuracy of identification of isolated chest injury by using several scoring systems.
METHODS
We reviewed a total of 75 patients admitted with isolated chest injury between January 2005 and October 2005. Medical records were reviewed by using the Injury Severity Score (ISS), the Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS). The scoring systems were compared by using statistics methods.
RESULTS
The overall predictive accuracy of the TRISS was 12.5%, 12.0% greater than those of the RTS and the ISS. By using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, the TRISS showed an excellent discriminative power (AUROC 0.931) compared to the ISS (AUROC 0.926) and the RTS (AUROC 0.872).
CONCLUSION
Compared with the RTS and the ISS, the TRISS is an easily applied tool with excellent prognostic abilities for isolated chest trauma patients. However, the TRISS, the ISS, and the RTS showed high specificity and low sensitivity, so another scoring system is required for triage and stratification of isolated chest injury patients.
Summary
Original article
Clinical Experience with using a Rapid Infuse at an Urban Emergency Department
Chong Kun Hong, Hyoung Gon Song
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):41-46.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Hypovolemia is not uncommon among trauma patients in the emergency department (ED). Successful resuscitation of a hypovolemic patient often requires rapid intravenous administration of massive amounts of fluid. A rapid fluid infuser is used in the ED for this purpose, there have been no studies of their clinical uses and effectiveness. We studied clinical experience with a rapid fluid infuser at an urban university hospital in Seoul, Korea.
METHODS
We reviewed the medical records of 38 patients admitted to the ED with a history of application of a rapid fluid infuser from January 2004 to July 2005. Adult trauma patients older than 15 years of age were included in this study. Clinical data on the patients and the volume of fluid used to achieve a stable blood pressure were extracted from their medical records.
RESULTS
The total number of adult trauma patients with a history of application of a rapid fluid infuser from January 2004 to July 2005 in the ED was 16. The mean systolic blood pressure for deciding to apply the rapid fluid infuser was 74.9+/-12.7 mmHg. The mean time and volume used to achieve a stable blood pressure were 40.4 min and 2947.3+/-1339.2 ml, respectively. In all patients, the amount of fluid infused before using the rapid fluid infuser was between 500 ml and 10,000 ml, compared to 1,000 ml and 6,200 ml with the rapid fluid infuser. The mean amount of fluid per min. via the rapid fluid infuser was 85.5 ml. Vital signs were stabilized in 11 patients, 6 of the 11 were discharged alive.
CONCLUSION
The mean amount of fluid delivered per min. via the rapid fluid infuser was much less than expected; thus, there should be clinical guidelines on volume resuscitation with a rapid fluid infuser in the ED. In the future, prospective, multicenter, clinical-data collection is needed for a more sophisticated study.
Summary
Original Articles
The Risk of Cervical Spine Injuries among Submersion Patients in River
Suk Hwan Kim, Kyung Ho Choi, Se Min Choi, Young Min Oh, Jin Sook Seo, Mi Jin Lee, Kyu Nam Park, Won Jae Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):47-53.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Recently, the American Heart Association recommended that routine cervical spine protection in submerged patients was not necessary, except in high-energy injury situations. However, until now, this recommendation has few supportive studies and literatures. This retrospective study was performed to demonstrate the risk of cervical spine injury in patients who had been submerged in a river.
METHODS
Seventy-nine submerged patients who visited St. Mary's Hospital between January 2000 and December 2005 were included in this retrospective study. We investigated and analyzed the victim's age, sex, activity on submersion, mental status and level of severity at admission, prognosis at discharge, associated injuries, and risk group by using the medical records and cervical spine lateral images. According to the activity on submersion, victims were classified into three groups: high risk, low risk, and unknown risk. The reports of radiologic studies were classified into unstable fracture, stable fracture, sprain, degenerative change, and normal.
RESULTS
The patients'mean age was 36.8 yrs, and 54% were males. Of the 79 patients, adult and adolescent populations (80%) were dominant. Jumping from a high bridge (48%) was the most common activity on submersion and accounted for 52% of the high-risk group. The Glasgow coma scale at admission and the cerebral performance scale at discharge showed bimodal patterns. The results of the radiologic studies showed one stable fracture, one suspicious stable fracture, and 18 sprains. The incidence of cervical spine fracture in submerged patients was 2.5% in our study. The incidence of cervical spine injury was higher in the high-risk group than it was in the low-risk group, especially in the jumping-from-high-bridge subgroup; however this observation was not statistically significant. No other factors had any significant effect on the incidence of cervical spine injury.
CONCLUSION
Our study showed that even submerged patients in the high risk group had a low incidence of cervical spine fracture and that the prognosis of a patient did not seem to be influenced by the cervical spine fracture itself.
Summary
Are Falls of Less Than 6 Meters Safe?
Young Woo Seo, Jung Seok Hong, Woo Yun Kim, Ryeok Ahn, Eun Seok Hong
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):54-58.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The committee on trauma of the american college of surgeons, in its manual resources for optimal care of the injured patients involved in falls from less than 20 feet need not be taken to trauma centers. Because triage criteria dictate less urgency for low-level falls, this classification scheme has demerits for early detection and treatment of serious problems in the emergency room.
METHODS
A prospective analysis was conducted of 182 patients treated for fall-related trauma from June 2003 to March 2004. Falls were classified as group A (<3 m), group B (> or =3 m, <6 m), and group C (> or =6 m). Collected data included the patient's age, gender, site and height of fall, surface fallen upon, body area of first impact, body regions of injuries, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and Injury Severity Score (ISS).
RESULTS
The 182 patients were classified as group A (105) 57.7%, group B (61) 33.5%, and group C (16) 8.8%. There was a weak positive correlation between the height of fall and the patients'ISS in the three groups (p<0.001). There were significant differences in GCS (p=0.017), RTS (p=0.034), and ISS (p=0.007) between group A and B. In cases that the head was the initial impact area of the body, the GCS (p<0.001) and the RTS (p=0.002) were lower, but the ISS (p<0.001) was higher than it was for other type of injuries. Hard surfaces as an impact surface type, had an influence on the GCS (p<0.001) and the ISS (p=0.025).
CONCLUSION
To simply categorize patients who fall over 6 meters as severely injured patients doesn't have much meaning, and though patients may have fallen less than 6 meters, they should be categorized by using the dynamics (impact surface type, initial body-impact area) of their fall.
Summary
Use of a Postoperative Hepatic Arterial Embolization in Patients with Postoperative Bleeding due to Severe Hepatic Injuries
Soo Hyun Cha, Yong Sik Jung, Jae Hwan Won, Wook Whan Kim, Hee Jung Wang, Myung Wook Kim, Kug Jong Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):59-66.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Acute liver failure after massive partial hepatectomy is critical condition with high mortality. To prevent postoperative liver failure from being induced by a massive partial hepatectomy, many doctors do a minimal resection on the single lobe of the liver that might cause postoperative bleeding from the remaining ruptured parenchyma. The objective of this study was to assess clinical experience with postoperative hepatic arterial embolization to control bleeding from the remaining ruptured liver during the postoperative period.
METHODS
This retrospective 4-year study was conducted from May 2002 to April 2006 and included consecutive patients who had sustained massive hepatic injuries and who had undergone a laparotomy, followed by postoperative hepatic arterial angiographic embolization to control bleeding. Data on the injury characteristics, the operative treatment and embolization, and the amount of transfused packed red cells (PRBC) were gathered and analyzed. In addition, data on the overall complications and survival rate were collected and analyzed.
RESULTS
Every case showed severe liver injury, higher liver injury scaling grade IV. Only ten cases involved a ruptured bilateral liver lobe. A lobectomy was done in 6 cases, a left lobectomy was done in 3 cases, and a primary suture closure of the liver was done in 2 cases. Suture closure was also done on the remaining ruptured liver parenchyma in cases of lobectomies. The postoperative hepatic arterial embolizations were done by using the super-selection technique. There were some cases of arterio-venous malformations and anomalous vessel branches. The average amount of transfused PRBC during 24 hours after embolization was 2.36+/-1.75, which statistically significantly lower than that before embolization. Among the 11 cases, 9 patients survived, and 2 died. There was no specific complications induced by the embolization.
CONCLUSION
In cases of postoperative bleeding in severe hepatic injury, if there is still a large amount of bleeding, postoperative hepatic arterial embolization might be a good therapeutic option.
Summary
The Usefulness of Initial Arterial Base Deficit in Trauma Patients
Eun Hun Lee, Jae Young Choi, Young Cheol Choi, Seong Youn Hwang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):67-73.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The arterial base deficit (BD) has proven to be useful in the evaluation and management of trauma patients. Indicators such as the Triage-Revised Trauma Score (t-RTS) and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score have been used as triage tools for emergency trauma patients in Korea. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of the initial BD in predicting injury severity and outcome in the trauma population.
METHODS
The medical records of 308 consecutive trauma patients admitted to the Emergency Center of Masan Samsung Hospital from January 2004 to December 2004 were carefully examined prospectively and retrospectively, and 291 patients were selected as subjects for this research. The SIRS score and the t-RTS were calculated based on the records from the emergency department, and the BD was calculated based on the arterial blood gas analysis obtained within 30 minutes of admission. The efficiency of the three indicators as triage tools was evaluated by using cross tabulations in two - by - two matrices and by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
RESULTS
When the mortality was used as the outcome parameter, the sensitivity and the accuracy of the initial BD were higher than those of the SIRS score (p<0.05) and were same as those of the t-RTS. The areas under the ROC curves of the initial BD, the SIRS score, and the t-RTS were 0.740+/-0.087, 0.696+/-0.082, and 0.871+/-0.072, respectively (95% confidence interval). When emergency operation and blood transfusion requirements were used as outcome parameters, the comparisons of the sensitivities and the accuracies of the initial BD and the other two indicators showed the same pattern as mentioned above. The areas under the ROC curves of the initial BD were 0.7~0.8 and were larger than those of the SIRS score (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION
The ability of the initial BD to predict injury severity and outcome was similar to those of the t- RTS and the SIRS score. Therefore, the authors suggest that the initial BD may be used as an alternative to previous triage tools for trauma patients
Summary
Clinical Study of Old-aged Patients in Traffic Accidents and Admitted For Emergency Treatment
Young Hwan Lee, Hyoung Gon Song
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):74-80.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
For prevention and suitable administration, the effect of age on the severity of injuries in traffic accidents should be considered when evaluating a patient, but there have not been enough epidemiological studies that evaluate the age factor in traffic accidents. For that reason, we investigated old-aged patients who were involved in traffic accidents (65 years old or more) and who were admitted to the emergency department of a college hospital in an urban city of Korea.
METHODS
We collected data from traffic-accident patients who came to the emergency room of a university hospital in Seoul from Jan.1, 2004 to Dec.31, 2005. We compared their abilities to ambulate and the RTSs (Revised trauma scores) by using a LSD (least significant difference), linear regression.
RESULTS
A total of 1460 patients were included. The mean RTS of all traffic-accident patients was 7.77+/-0.280. The scores for drivers and passengers, motor-cycle drivers and passengers, bicycle drivers and passengers, and pedestrians were 7.79+/-0.21, 7.78+/-0.22, 7.54+/-0.25, 7.77+/-0.20, and 7.80+/-0.21 respectively (p=0.000). There was no statistically significant difference between the RTS of patients over 65 years and that of other patients. In a regression analysis, the number of patients over 45 ages who were able to ambulate was lower than that of younger people, independently of other influencing factors (B=-0.330, R-square = 0.243, p=0.000).
CONCLUSION
We expected that RTS of old age group more than 65 years old will significantly lower than that of others, but there was no statistically significant difference.
Summary
Clinical Analysis of Traumatic Pyomyositis in Emergency Patients
Ji Ung Na, Hyoung Gon Song
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):81-88.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Pyomyositis is a rare disease in temperature climate region. The diagnosis of pyomyositis is often delayed, and pyomyositis is often misdiagnosed in the emergency department.
METHODS
The medical records of 11 patients who were diagnosed as having traumatic pyomyositis in the emergency department at Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, between 2000 and 2006 were reviewed. Their clinical features, such as history, symptoms, clinical findings, duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis, medical history, laboratory data, results of imaging studies and clinical course were collected.
RESULTS
The psoas muscles were most commonly involved. Computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging aided in accurate diagnosis of the infection and of the extent of involvement. Incision, drainage, and antibiotics therapy eradicated the infectioin in all patients CONCLUSION: Pyomyositis should be a part of the differential diagnosis for patients with traumatic muscle pain. Radiologic evaluation, such as computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, must be considered in the diagnosis of traumatic pyomyositis.
Summary
Case Reports
A Case of Penetrating Facial Wound by a Grinder
Jin ah Kang, Kang Ho Kim, Jin Hui Paik, Dae Young Hong, Ji Hye Kim, Kyoung Mi Lee, Jun Sig Kim, Seung Baik Han
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):89-92.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Penetrating facial wounds are uncommon and are usually life threatening because of the possibility of brain damage. There are three possible pathways for penetrating the cranium through the orbit: via the orbital roof, via the superior orbital fissure, or between the optic canal and lateral wall of the orbit. Brain injuries resulting from the penetrating wounds show extensive parenchymal damage, hemorrhage, and brain edema. Transorbital penetrating wounds can lead to diverse lesions of the optical apparatus, including the eye globe, the optical nerve, and the chiasm. Moreover, intracerebral structures may be hurt, and bleeding and infection may occur. Early diagnosis and prompt debridement are the fundamental factors affecting the outcome of a penetrating facial wound. An 87-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with a grinder impacted into the medial aspect of the right eye. On presentation, the man was fully conscious with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 and complained of a visual disturbance of the right eye. Computed tomography demonstrated a right orbital medial and inferior wall fracture, a frontal bone fracture, and a contusional hemorrhage in frontal lobe of the brain. A craniotomy with hematoma removal and repair of the orbital floor was done. He showed no neurological deficits except right visual loss. This appears to be the first report of a man with a penetrating facial wound caused by a grinder, who presented with a potentially disastrous craniocerebral injury that did not lead to any serious neurological seguelae.
Summary
Traumatic Spinal Subdural Hematoma Accompanying intracranial hematoma: Spontaneous Resolution after Pumbar Puncture
Won Tae Lee, Seok Won Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):93-96.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A traumatic spinal subdural hematoma is a rare condition, and only nine cases have been reported until now. We report a rare case of concomitant intracranial hemorrhage and spinal subdural hematoma with a review of the literature. A 45-year-old man was referred to our institute after being stroke by a car. He complained of nausea, headache, back pain, and bilateral sciatica. Brain computed tomography and lumbar spine magnetic resonance images revealed both an intracerbral hemorrhage and a subdural hematoma in the L4 to S1 level. After performing a lumbar spinal puncture and draining the hemorrhagic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the intracranial and spinal hematomas were resolved completely without any neruologic deficits.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury