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Biomechanics of stabbing knife attack for trauma surgeons in Korea: a narrative review
Kun Hwang, Chan Yong Park
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):1-5.   Published online January 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0057
  • 999 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of this paper was to review the biomechanics of knife injuries, including those that occur during stabbing rampages. In knife stab attacks, axial force and energy were found to be 1,885 N and 69 J, respectively. The mean velocity of a stabbing motion has been reported to range from 5 to 10 m/sec, with knife motions occurring between 0.62 and 1.07 seconds. This speed appears to surpass the defensive capabilities of unarmed, ordinarily trained law enforcement officers. Therefore, it is advisable to maintain a minimum distance of more than an arm's length from an individual visibly armed with a knife. In training for knife defense, particularly in preparation for close-quarter knife attacks, this timing should be kept in mind. Self-inflicted stab wounds exhibited a higher proportion of wounds to the neck and abdomen than assault wounds. Injuries from assault wounds presented a higher Injury Severity Score, but more procedures were performed on self-inflicted stab wounds. Wound characteristics are not different between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal self-wrist cutting injuries. Consequently, trauma surgeons cannot determine a patient's suicidal intent based solely on the characteristics of the wound. In Korea, percent of usage of lethal weapon is increasing. In violence as well as murders, the most frequently used weapon is knife. In the crimes using knife, 4.8% of victims are killed. Therefore, the provision of prehospital care by an emergency medical technician is crucial.
Summary
Delayed union of a pediatric lunate fracture in the United Kingdom: a case report and a review of current concepts of non-scaphoid pediatric carpal fractures
Timothy P. Davis, Elizabeth Headon, Rebecca Morgan, Ashley I. Simpson
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):315-321.   Published online December 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0038
  • 681 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pediatric carpal fractures are rare and often difficult to detect. This paper reviews the current literature on pediatric non-scaphoid carpal fractures, with a case report of a lunate fracture associated with a distal radius and ulnar styloid fracture, managed nonoperatively in a 12-year-old boy. There is lack of consensus regarding the management of these fractures due to the low number of reported cases. A frequent lack of long-term follow-up limits our understanding of the outcomes, but good outcomes have been reported for both nonoperative and operative management. This case report brings attention to the current time period for the definition of delayed union in pediatric carpal fractures, and emphasizes the need for prolonged follow-up for the detection of delayed complications leading to functional impairment.
Summary
Endovascular embolization of persistent liver injuries not responding to conservative management: a narrative review
Simon Roh
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):165-171.   Published online September 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0040
  • 1,201 View
  • 60 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Trauma remains a significant healthcare burden, causing over five million yearly fatalities. Notably, the liver is a frequently injured solid organ in abdominal trauma, especially in patients under 40 years. It becomes even more critical given that uncontrolled hemorrhage linked to liver trauma can have mortality rates ranging from 10% to 50%. Liver injuries, mainly resulting from blunt trauma such as motor vehicle accidents, are traditionally classified using the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grading scale. However, recent developments have introduced the World Society of Emergency Surgery classification, which considers the patient's physiological status. The diagnostic approach often involves multiphase computed tomography (CT). Still, newer methods like split-bolus single-pass CT and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) aim to reduce radiation exposure. Concerning management, nonoperative strategies have emerged as the gold standard, especially for hemodynamically stable patients. Incorporating angiography with embolization has also been beneficial, with success rates reported between 80% and 97%. However, it is essential to identify the specific source of bleeding for effective embolization. Given the severity of liver trauma and its potential complications, innovations in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have been pivotal. While CT remains a primary diagnostic tool, methods like CEUS offer safer alternatives. Moreover, nonoperative management, especially when combined with angiography and embolization, has demonstrated notable success. Still, the healthcare community must remain vigilant to complications and continuously seek improvements in trauma care.
Summary
Writing papers: literary and scientific
Kun Hwang
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):145-150.   Published online June 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0006
  • 2,073 View
  • 61 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This paper aims to summarize why I write, how to find a motif, and how to polish and finish a manuscript. For William Carlos Williams, practicing medicine and writing poetry were two parts of a single whole, not each of the other. The two complemented each other. Medicine stimulated Williams to become a poet, while poetry was also the driving force behind his role as a doctor. Alexander Pope, the 18th century English poet, wrote a poem entitled “The Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot” that was dedicated to a friend who was both a poet and a physician. In this poem, we receive an answer to the questions of ‘‘Why do you write? Why do you publish?’’ Pope writes, “Happy my studies, when by these approv’d! / Happier their author, when by these belov’d! / From these the world will judge of men and books.” When I write, I first reflect on whether I only want to write something for its own sake, like “a dog chasing its own tail,’’ instead of making a more worthwhile contribution. When my colleagues ask me, “Why do you write essays as well as scientific papers?” I usually answer, “Writing is a process of healing for me—I cannot bear myself unless I write.” When the time comes to sit down and put pen to paper, I remind myself of the saying, festina lente (in German, Ohne Hast, aber ohne Rast, corresponding to the English proverb “more haste, less speed”). If I am utterly exhausted when I finish writing, then I know that I have had my vision.
Summary
Evolution of trauma care and the trauma registry in the West Australian health system
Mayura Thilanka Iddagoda, Maxine Burrell, Sudhakar Rao, Leon Flicker
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):71-75.   Published online May 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0060
  • 2,374 View
  • 69 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Trauma care is evolving throughout the world to meet the demand resulting from rapidly increasing rates of mortality and morbidity related to external injuries. The State Major Trauma Service was designated to Royal Perth Hospital in 2004 to provide comprehensive care for trauma patients in Western Australia (WA), which is the largest state by area in the country. The State Major Trauma Unit, which was established in 2008, functions as a level I center and admits over 1,000 major trauma patients per year, making it the second busiest trauma center in Australia. The importance of recording data related to trauma was identified by the trauma service in WA to inspire higher standards of patient care and injury prevention. In 1994, the service established a trauma registry, which has undergone significant changes over the last two decades. The current State Trauma Registry is linked to a statewide database called the Data Linkage System. The linked data are available for policy development, quality assurance, and research. This article discusses the evolution of the trauma service and the registry database in the WA health system. The State Trauma Registry has enormous potential to contribute to research and quality improvement studies along with its ability to link with other databases.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Development of a standardized minimum dataset for including low‐severity trauma patients in trauma registry collections in Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand
    Grant Christey, Jacelle Warren, Cameron S. Palmer, Maxine Burrell, Kirsten Vallmuur
    ANZ Journal of Surgery.2023; 93(3): 572.     CrossRef
Trauma Surgery and War: A Historical Perspective
Kun Hwang
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):219-224.   Published online September 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0029
  • 4,176 View
  • 147 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The aim of this review is to introduce the progress in trauma surgery made during war. In the 16th century, Paré reintroduced ligature of arteries, which had been introduced by Celsus and Galen, instead of cauterization during amputation. Larrey, a surgeon in Napoleon’s military, adapted the “flying artillery” to serve as “flying ambulances” for rapid transport of the wounded. He established rules for the triage of war casualties, treating wounded soldiers according to the seriousness of their injuries and the urgency of medical care. To treat fractures and tuberculosis, Thomas created the “Thomas splint”, which was used to stabilize fractured femurs and prevent infection; in World War I (WWI), use of this splint reduced the mortality of compound femur fractures from 87% to less than 8%. During WWI, Cushing systematized the treatment of head injuries, reducing mortality among head injury patients. Gillies repaired facial injuries, and his experiences became the basis of craniofacial and aesthetic surgery. In WWII, McIndoe discovered that immersion in saline promoted burn healing and improved survival rates, and thus began saline baths and early grafting instead of using tannic acid. A high mortality rate in patients with acute renal failure was noted in WWII and the Korean War. In the Korean War, Teschan used the Kolff-Brigham dialyzer. The first use of medevac with helicopters was the evacuation of three British pilot combat casualties by the US Army in Burma during WWII. As a lotus blooms in the mud, military surgeons have contributed to trauma surgery during wartime.

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Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • New horizons of Flaubert: from a barber-surgeon to a modern trauma surgeon
    Kun Hwang
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2022; 35(Suppl 1): S1.     CrossRef
Educational Simulation Videos for Performing Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta
Sung Wook Chang, Dong Hun Kim, Ye Rim Chang
J Trauma Inj. 2020;33(3):140-143.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0035
  • 5,059 View
  • 106 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material

Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has been accepted as an adjunct procedure for non-compressible torso hemorrhage in patients with hemorrhagic shock. With appropriate indications, REBOA should be performed for resuscitation regardless of the physician’s specialty. Despite its effectiveness in traumatized patients with hemorrhagic shock, performing REBOA has been challenging due to physicians’ lack of experience. Even though training in endovascular skills is mandatory, many physicians cannot undergo sufficient training because of the limited number of endovascular simulation programs. Herein, we share simulation video clips, including those of a vascular circuit model for simulation; sheath preparation; long guidewire and balloon catheter preparation; ultrasound-guided arterial access; sheath insertion or upsizing; and balloon positioning, inflation, and migration. The aim of this study was to provide educational video clips to improve physicians’ endovascular skills for REBOA.

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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Feasibility and Clinical Outcomes of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta in Patients with Traumatic Shock: A Single-Center 5-Year Experience
    Gyeongho Lee, Dong Hun Kim, Dae Sung Ma, Seok Won Lee, Yoonjung Heo, Hancheol Jo, Sung Wook Chang
    Journal of Chest Surgery.2023; 56(2): 108.     CrossRef
  • Early experience with resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta for unstable pelvic fractures in the Republic of Korea: a multi-institutional study
    Dong Hun Kim, Jonghwan Moon, Sung Wook Chang, Byung Hee Kang
    European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery.2023; 49(6): 2495.     CrossRef
Iatrogenic Ureteral Injury: When and How to Treat?
Kang Il Seo, Jong Bouk Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(1):8-14.
  • 1,548 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Iatrogenic ureteral injury is a complication that can occur during a variety of pelvic or abdominal surgeries. The most frequent causes are gynecological ones, followed by colon and vascular surgeries. Management of ureteric injury depends on the time of diagnosis and the severity of organ damage. Injuries diagnosed intraoperatively should be treated immediately. Occasionally, intraoperative ureteral injury is overlooked, and symptoms of the late diagnosis of ureteral injury are usually nonspecific; therefore, the diagnosis is delayed for days or weeks postoperatively. Management of injuries diagnosed postoperatively is more complex. There are differing opinions on whether an initial conservative or immediate operative intervention is the best line of action. Delayed repair is suggested on the grounds that it will reduce inflammation and tissue edema. However, many authors are in favor of early repair, perhaps because tissue planes are easier to find before fibrosis becomes too dense. Ureteral injuries occurring at the level of the pelvic brim should be best managed with an end-to-end anastomosis, preferably around a ureteric stent. More distal injuries also should be ideally managed with an end-to-end anastomosis, after excision of the crushed or compromised segments. However, if the remaining distal segment is short, ureteral reimplantation is the procedure of choice. The Boari flap technique for ureteral reimplantation is invaluable in cases with a short proximal segment. Delayed recognition of iatrogenic ureteral injury may be associated with serious complications, so prompt recognition of ureteral injuries is important. Recognition of the injury before closure is the key to easy, successful, and complications-free repair. Increased awareness of the risk for ureteral damage during certain operative maneuvers is vital to prevent injury, and to decrease the incidence of iatrogenic injury. A sound knowledge of abdominal and pelvic anatomy is the best prevention.
Summary
The Necessity for a Trauma Surgeon and the Trauma Surgeon's Role in the Trauma Care System
Kug Jong Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(1):1-7.
  • 1,409 View
  • 14 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
When man first walked on this planet, injury must have been a close encounter of the first kind. The outbreak of World War I, during a period of rapid scientific growth in the basic sciences, demonstrated the need to develop better methods of care for the wounded, methods that were later applicable to the civilian population. Trauma is a multisystem disease and, as such, benefits from almost any advance in medical science. As we learn more about the physiology and the biochemistry of various organ systems, we can provide better management for trauma victims. Improved imaging techniques, better appreciation of physiologic tolerance, and increased understanding of the side effects of specific surgical procedures have combined to reduce operative intervention as a component of trauma patient care. On the other hand, because of this rapid development of medical science, only a few doctors still have the ability to treat multisystem injuries because almost doctor has his or her specialty, which means a doctor tends to see only patients with diagnoses in the doctor's specialty. Trauma Surgeons are physicians who have completed the typical general surgery residency and who usually continue with a one to two year fellowship leading to additional board certification in Surgical Critical Care. It is important to note that trauma surgeons do not need to do all kinds of operations, such as neurosurgery and orthopedic surgery. Trauma surgeons are not only a surgeon but also general medical practitioners who are very good at critical care and coordination of patient. In order to achieve the best patient outcomes, trauma surgeons should be involved in prehospital Emergency Medical Services, the Trauma Resuscitation Room, the Operating Room, the Surgical Intensive Care and Trauma Unit, the Trauma Ward, the Rehabilitation Department, and the Trauma Outpatient Clinic. In conclusion, according to worldwide experience and research, the trauma surgeon is the key factor in the trauma care system, so the trauma surgeon should receive strong support to accomplish his or her role successfully.
Summary
Current Concept and Future of the Management of Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review
Il Choi, Jin Gyeong Ha, Sang Ryong Jeon
J Trauma Inj. 2013;26(3):63-73.
  • 1,260 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious condition associated with social and familial burden, as well as significant neurologic deficit. Despite the many advances in the treatment of spinal cord injury, a fundamental treatment for neurologic functional recovery has not yet been developed. In this article, we review two directions of development for spinal cord injury treatment: neuroprotective pharmacological agents and axon-regenerating cell therapy. We expect developments in these two to lead to improve functional recovery in patients with spinal cord injuries and to reduce burdens on society, as well as the patients' families.
Summary
General Scheme for the Level I Trauma Center in South Korea
Kug Jong Lee, M.D., Jae Yong Kim, M.D.*, Kang Hyun Lee, M.D.**, Gil Joon Suh, M.D.***, Yeo Kyu Youn, M.D.****
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2005;18(1):1-16.
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  • 48 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
An ideal trauma care system would include all the components identified with optimal trauma care, such as prevention, access, acute hospital care, rehabilitation, and research activities. Central to an ideal system is a large resource-rich trauma center. The need for resources is primarily based on the concept of being able to provide immediate medical care for unlimited numbers of injured patients at any time. Optimal resources at such a trauma center would include inhouse board-certified emergency medicine physicians, general surgeons, anesthesiologists, neurosurgeons, and orthopedic surgeons. Other board-certified specialists would be available, within a short time frame, to all patients who require their expertise. This center would require a certainvolume of injured patients to be admitted each year, and these patients would include the most severely injured patients within the system. Additionally, certain injuries that are infrequently seen would be concentrated in this special center to ensure that these patients could be properly treated and studied, providing the opportunity to improve the care of these patients. These research activities are necessary to enhance our knowledge of the care of the injured. Basic science research in areas such as shock, brain edema, organ failure, and rehabilitation would also be present in the ideal center. This trauma center would have an integrated concurrent performance improvement program to ensure optimal care and continuous improvement in care. This center would not only be responsible for assessing care delivered within its trauma program, but for helping to organize the assessment of care within the entire trauma system. This ideal trauma center would serve as a total resource for all organizations dealing with the injured patient in the regional area.
Summary
Primary Survey of Cardiac Troponin I Elevated Groups in Trauma Patients
You Dong Sohn, M.D., Kyoung Soo Lim, M.D., Ji Yun Ahn, M.D., Jung Kuen Park, M.D., Gyu Chong Cho, M.D., Bum Jin Oh, M.D., Won Kim, M.D.
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2005;18(2):81-86.
  • 1,044 View
  • 6 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a sensitive cardiac marker of myocardial injury. In normal coronary angiogram, positive cTnI values may be detected in various events such as sepsis, stroke, trauma and so on. To investigate characteristics of cTnI positive group in trauma patients, we designed this study between cTnI positive group and cTnI negative group. Method: Trauma patients who visited emergency room within 24 hours after accidents were included. Patients who had renal failure, acute coronary syndrome, sepsis, spontaneous SAH were excluded. Retrospective study of 97 trauma patients was done. We investgated ISS (injury severity score), positive cTnI, EKG abnormality, shock class, ICU admission rate and mortality. R e s u l t: In comparing with non chest trauma group, chest trauma group, whose chest AIS (Abbreviated Injury Score) is more than 3 point, had significant values in ISS, positive cTnI, EKG abnormality, shock class and ICU admission rate. Also, in non chest trauma group, we found several patients whose cTnI level was positive. When non chest trauma group was divided into two subgroups, the mortality and shock class of positive cTnI group were higher than that of negative cTnI group. When all trauma patients were divided into two
groups, a positive cTnI group had higher values in ISS, shock class, ICU admission rate and mortality than that in a negative cTnI group. Conclusion: We found that cTnI were positive in patients of cardiac contusion but also in various trauma cases. In non chest trauma patients, we assumed that hypotension caused cTnI elevating. The cTnI could play a role in predicting prognosis in trauma patients.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury