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J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury

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Yun Sik Hong 3 Articles
Early Traumatic Deaths
Seung Won Paik, Chul Han, Yun Sik Hong, Sung Hyuk Choi, Sung Woo Lee, Sung Woo Moon, Young Hoon Yoon, Woo Sung Yu, Duk Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):75-82.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
In Korea, trauma is the 3rd most common cause of death. The trauma treatment system is divided into pre-hospital and hospital stages. Deaths occurring in the pre-hospital stage are 50% of the total death, and 20% of those are deaths that are preventable. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to calculate the preventable death rates caused by trauma in our current pre-hospital system, to analyze the appropriateness of the treatment of traumatized patients and to draw a conclusions about the problems we have.
METHODS
The study was done on traumatized patients who expired at the emergency department from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009, at the Korea University Medical Centers in Anam, Guro and Ansan. The data on the patients were reviewed retrospectively based on characteristics, conditions on admission and trauma severity. The patient's RTS (revised trauma score) and ISS (injury severity score) was calculated. Preventable death rate was calculated by TRISS (the trauma score-injury severity score).
RESULTS
A total of 168 patients were enrolled. All patients were intubated and underwent CPR. Of the total, 72% patients were male, and traffic accidents were the most common form of trauma (52.4%), falls being second (28.6%). Head injury, solitary or multiple, was the most common cause of death (55.4%). Thirty-eight (38, 22.6%) deaths were preventable. The 22.6% preventable death rate consisted of 15.5% potentially preventable and 7.1% definitely preventable deaths. Based on a logistic regression analysis, the relationship between the time intervals until transfusion and imaging and death was statistically significant in the hospital stage. In the pre-hospital stage, transit time from the site of the injury to the hospital showed a significant relationship with the mortality rate.
CONCLUSION
One hundred sixty-eight (168) patients died of trauma at the 3 hospitals of Korea University Medical Center. The TRISS method was used to calculate the preventable death rate, with a result of 22.6%. The only factor that was significant related to the preventable death rate in the pre-hospital stage was the time from injury to hospital arrival, and the time intervals until transfusion and imaging were the two factors that showed significance in the hospital stage. Shortening the time of treatment in the field and transferring the patient to the hospital as quickly as possible is the most important life-saving step in the pre-hospital stage. In the hospital stage, the primary survey, resuscitation and diagnosis should proceed simultaneously.
Summary
Clinical Evaluation of Abdominal Stab Wound Patients in the ED
Jong Hak Park, Jung Youn Kim, Jun Hyun Shin, Young Hoon Yoon, Han Jin Cho, Sung Woo Moon, Sung Hyuk Choi, Sung Woo Lee, Yun Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(1):21-28.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
In Korea, most abdominal penetrating wounds are caused by stab wounds rather than gun-shot wounds. However, not many studies have been performed on stab injuries and their epidemiologic characteristics. Disagreements of opinions of obligatory surgical exploration and conservative treatment exist, and this subject is still being debated. Therefore, the authors studied the epidemiologic characteristics of abdominal stab wound patients visiting the emergency department and reviewed the proportion of patients that received non-therapeutic surgery and conservative treatment.
METHODS
This study included patients visiting the emergency department with abdominal stab wounds. A retrospective chart review was done on the abdominal stab wound patients. Sex, age, cause of injury, location of wound, initial vital signs, operation results, injured organs and CT & LWE results were reviewed.
RESULTS
The median age of the 121 patients was 40.9 years, of these patients, 88 were males, of which 52 (43.0%) were drunken. Of the patients that received non-therapeutic operations, only 3 patients (15.0%) were drunken, significantly lower than the therapeutic operation group. For the location of the wound, most patients were injured in the right and left upper quadrants, 27 patients each. The most common injured organ was the small bowel; 13 patients were injured in the small bowel. With abdominal CT scans and local wound explorations together, the results exhibited a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 44%, a positive predictive value of 56%, and a negative predictive value of 95%.
CONCLUSION
In our study, the sensitivity was 97% when CT & LWE were performed together; thus we can conclude that CT and LWE can be used together to select the treatment method. Although in our study, the surgical indications in abdominal stab wound patients is not sufficient, our results showed a higher rate of non-therapeutic surgery compared to previous studies. Therefore, more research is needed to prevent unnecessary laparotomies in hemodynamically-stable patients without symptoms.
Summary
Impact of Initial Helical Abdominal Computed Tomography on the Diagnosis of Hollow Viscus Injury and Blunt Abdominal Traumare
Young Duck Cho, Yun Sik Hong, Sung Woo Lee, Sung Hyuk Choi, Young Hoon Yoon, Sung Ik Lim, Ik Jin Jang, Seung Won Baek
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(1):28-35.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to examine the clinical significance IV-contrasted helical abdomen computed tomography (CT) as a diagnostic screening tool to evaluate hollow viscus injury in blunt abdominal trauma patients.
METHODS
This is a retrospective study encompassing 108 patients, presenting to Korea University Medical Center (KUMC) Emergency Department (ED) from January 2007 to December 2007, with an initial CT finding suggestive of intra-abdominal injury. An initial non-enhanced abdomen CT was taken, followed by an enhanced CT with intravenous contrast. Patients' demographic data, as well as the mechanisms of injury, were inquired upon and obtained, initial diagnosis, as dictated by specialized radiologists, were added to post-operational (post-OP) findings and to additional CT findings acquired during their hospital stays, and all were combined to arrive at final diagnosis. Initial CT findings were further compared with the final diagnosis, yielding values for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, as well as positive and negative predictive values. Patients were further divided into two groups, namely, those that underwent operational intervention and those that did not. The initial CT findings of each group were subsequently compared and analyzed.
RESULTS
Initial CT scans revealed abnormal findings in a total of 212 cases - solid organ injuries being the most common finding, as was observed in 97 cases. Free fluid accumulation was evident in another 69 cases. Based on the CT findings, 77 cases (71.3%) were initially diagnosed as having a solid organ injury, 20 cases (18.5%) as having a combined (solid organ + hollow viscus) injury, and 11 cases (10.2%), as having an isolated hollow viscus injury. The final diagnosis however, were somewhat different, with only 67 cases (62.0%) attributed to solid organ injury, 31 cases (28.7%) to combined injury (solid + hollow), and 10 cases (9.3%) to hollow viscus injury. The sensitivity (CI 95%) of the initial helical CT in diagnosing hollow viscus injury was 75.6%, and its specificity was 100%. The accuracy in diagnosing hollow viscus injury was also meaningfully lower compared to that in diagnosis of solid organ injury. Among patients initially diagnosed with solid organ injuries, 10 patients (2 from follow-up CT and 8 from post-OP finding) turned out to have combined injuries. A total of 38 patients underwent an operation, and the proportion of initial CT findings suggesting free air, mesenteric hematoma or bowel wall thickening turned out to be significantly higher in the operation group.
CONCLUSION
Abdominal CT was a meaningful screening test for hollow viscus injury, but the sensitivity of abdominal CT was significantly lower in detecting hollow viscus injury as compared to solid organ injury. This calls for special consideration and careful observation by the ED physicians when dealing with cases of blunt abdominal trauma.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury