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Sung Sil Lee 2 Articles
A Cause Analysis of Missed Fractures in an Emergency Medical Center
Deuk Hyun Park, Sung Sil Lee, Dong Un Kim, Hyun Young Cho, Young Geun Lee, Jun Su Kim, Jin Jun, Young Kim, Young Rock Ha, Tae Yong Shin
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):37-43.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A missed fracture is a very common occurrence in the Emergency Department (ED) and can have serious results because of delays in treatment, resulting in long-term disability. It is also one of the most common causes leading to medical legal issues. We analyzed the causes of missed fractures by using a bone scan which is known to be an effective tool for diagnosing bony lesions.
METHODS
We reviewed the medical records of trauma patients who underwent a bone scan after being discharged the ED from September 2006 to March 2008. Cases of missed fractures were identified by using electronic medical records to review each diagnosis. Definition of missed fracture was read after bone scan by radiologist. We decided that there was no fracture if we read 'trauma-related lesion' or 'cannot rule out fracture' on a bone scan read by a radiologist. Enrolled patients were analyzed by age, sex, time until bone scan and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Patients were divided into two groups, alert mentality and not-alert mentality, so there were split between a diagnosis group and a missed fracture group. ISS was also used in determining the severity of the patient's injury upon discharge from the ED.
RESULTS
A total of 532 patients were enrolled in this study. Of those, 487 patients were in the diagnosis group, and 45 patients (8.4%) were discovered to have had a fracture. Of the 45 missed fracture patients, 34 patients (6.4%) had one-site fractures, 8 patients (1.5%) had two-site fractures, and 3 patients (0.6%) had threesite fractures. The most commonly missed fracture was multiple rib fractures (18 patients, 30.5%), followed by lumbosacral (LS) spine fractures (10 patients, 16.9%), thoracic spine fractures (8 patients, 13.6%), and clavicle fractures (6 patients, 10.2%). Mean age was 50.12+/-18.54 years in the diagnosis group and 57.38+/-16.88 years in the missed fracture group. For the diagnosis group, the mean ISS was 9.03+/-8.26, but in the missed fracture group it was 17.53+/-9.69. Missed fractures were much more frequent in the not-alert mentality (p<0.01) and in the high ISS (ISS> or =16) group (p<0.01).
CONCLUSION
Missed fractures occur most frequent in patients of old age, not-alert mentality, and high ISS. Multiple rib and spine fractures were found to be the most frequent missed fractures, regardless of trauma severity. This study also shows a high possibility of clavicle and scapula fractures in patients with severe trauma.
Summary
The Utility of Emergency Ultrasound for Diagnosing Wrist and Ankle Injuries
Sung Sil Lee, Dong Un Kim, Deuk Hyun Park, Hyun Young Cho, Seung Jun Ahn, Chan Young Kho, Tae Yong Shin, Young Sik Kim, Young Rock Ha
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2007;20(2):130-137.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Ultrasound is of proven accuracy in abdominal and thoracic trauma and may be useful for diagnosing extremity injury in situations where radiography is not available, such as disasters and military and space applications. However, the diagnosis of fractures is suggested by history and physical examination and is typically confirmed with radiography. As a alternative to radiography, we prospectively evaluated the utility of extremity ultrasound performed by trained residents of emergency medicine (EM) one patient with wrist and ankle extremity injuries.
METHODS
Initially, residents of EM performed physical examinations for fractures. The emergency ultrasound (EM US) was performed by trained residents, who used a portable ultrasound device with a 10- to 5-MHz linear transducer, on suspected patients before radiography examination. The results of emergency ultrasound and radiography and the final diagnosis were recorded, and correlations among them were determined by using Kappa`s test.
RESULTS
Thirty-nine patients were enrolled in our study. The average age was 36.6+/-19.3 years. There were radius Fx. (n=21), radius-ulna Fx. (n=1), ulna Fx. (n=1), and contusion (n=2) injuries among the wrist injury and lat.-med. malleolar Fx. (n=13), lat. malleolar Fx. (n=6), and med. malleolar Fx. (n=3) injuries among the ankle injury. Comparing EM US with radiography, we found the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EM US for Fx. diagnosis to be 100%, 66.7%, 97.3%, 100% and those of radiography to be 97.2%, 100%, 100%, and 75%, respectively. Kappa`s test for a correlation between the Fx. diagnosis of EM US and the final diagnosis of Fx was performed, and Kappa`s value was 0.787 (P = 0.004).
CONCLUSION
EM US for Fx. can be performed quickly and accurately by EM residents with excellent accuracy in remote locations such as disaster areas and in military and aerospace applications. EM US was as useful as radiography in our study and had a high correlation to the final diagnosis of Fx. Therefore, ultrasound should performed on patients with extremity injury to determine whether extremity evaluation should be added to the FAST (focused abdominal sonography trauma) examination.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury