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Sang Kook Han 1 Article
The Relationship between Facial Fractures and Radiologically-proven Cranial Injuries
Jin Woo Song, Ik Joon Jo, Sang Kook Han, Yeon Kwon Jeong
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):18-23.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
In this study, we retrospectively investigated the medical records of patients with facial fractures and suspected cranial injuries in order to determine if there was any relationship between various facial fracture patterns and cranial injuries.
METHODS
Medical records were reviewed to identify patients diagnosed with facial fractures who underwent cranial computed tomography (CT) scans. Records were reviewed for gender, age, injury mechanism, facial fracture pattern, and presence or absence of cranial injuries. Facial fracture patterns were classified as isolated fractures (tripod, zygomatic arch, maxilla, orbit, and mandible), combined fractures, or total fractures. Cranial injuries included skull fractures, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhages, subdural hemorrhages, epidural hemorrhages, and contusional hemorrhages. All cranial injuries were established by using cranial CT scans, and these kinds of cranial injuries were defined radiologically-proven cranial injuries (RPCIs). We evaluated the relationship between each pattern of facial fractures and the incidence of RPCIs.
RESULTS
Of 132 eligible patients with facial fractures who underwent cranial CT scans, a total of 27 (20.5%) patients had RPCIs associated with facial fractures. Falls and slips were the most common causes of the fractures (31.8%), followed by assaults and motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). One hundred one (76.5%) patients had isolated facial fractures, and 31 (23.5%) patients had combined facial fractures. Fractures were found most commonly in the orbital and maxillary bones. Patients with isolated maxillary fractures had a lower incidence of RPCIs than those with total mandibular fractures. RPCIs frequently accompanied combined facial fractures.
CONCLUSION
Combined facial fractures had a significant positive correlation with RPCIs. This means that facial fractures caused by stronger or multidirectional external force are likely to be accompanied by cranial injuries.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury