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Sang Chul Kim 5 Articles
Injury Analysis of Child Passenger According to the Types of Safety Restraint Systems in Motor Vehicle Crashes
Kang Min Sung, Sang Chul Kim, Hyuk Jin Jeon, Yeong Soo Kwak, Young Han Youn, Kang Hyun Lee, Jong Chan Park, Ji Hun Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(3):98-103.   Published online September 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2015.28.3.98
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
To compare injury sustained and severity of child occupant according to the types of safety restraint systems in motor vehicle crashes.
METHODS
This was a retrospective observational study. The study subjects were child occupants under the age of 8 years who visited a local emergency center following a motor vehicle crash from 2010 to 2014. According to safety restraint: child restraint systems (CRS), belted, and unbelted, we compared injuries sustained and injury severity using the maximal Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS), and analyzed the characteristics of severe injuries (AIS2+).
RESULTS
Among 241 subjects, 9.1% were restrained in CRS, 14.5% were only belted, and 76.3% was unbelted at the time of the crashes. Fourteen had severe injuries (AIS2+), all of whom didn't be restrained by CRS. Injuries in face and neck were the highest in unbelted group, and MAIS and ISS were the lowest in CRS group.
CONCLUSION
Among safety restraint systems for child occupant in motor vehicle crashes, the CRS have the preventive effect of face and neck injuries, and are the most effective safety restraint systems.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predicting child occupant crash injury severity in the United Arab Emirates using machine learning models for imbalanced dataset
    Muhammad Uba Abdulazeez, Wasif Khan, Kassim Abdulrahman Abdullah
    IATSS Research.2023; 47(2): 134.     CrossRef
  • Current use of safety restraint systems and front seats in Korean children based on the 2008–2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Seom Gim Kong
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics.2018; 61(12): 381.     CrossRef
Injury Analysis of a 25-passenger Bus Left-quarter Turn Rollover Accident
Sang Min Park, Sang Chul Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Jae Wan Lee, Hyuk Jin Jeon, Ho Jung Kim, Jin Yong Kim, Young Soo Kwak, Woo Sung Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2014;27(3):50-56.
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  • 5 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Rollover motor vehicle crashes have a higher injury severity and fatality than other motor vehicle crash types. From a left-quarter turn rollover accident of 25-passenger bus, we intend to assess the injury of the occupant and the injury severities according to the occupants' position.
METHODS
We carried out the 3 steps investigation of occupants' interview, visiting the repair shop and using the police report. We analyzed injuries sustained by occupants, and compared injury severities considering column, row in occupant's position and passenger interaction.
RESULTS
The rollover involved 14 passengers in the bus who were all old women except a man driver. The most common injury was in the upper extremity, with six occurrences being a left clavicle fracture. Major injuries including hemothorax and pneumothorax were diagnosed at left side of the occupant. In the comparison of injury severity among driver's column (left side), mid column and passengercolumn, ISS of passenger column was the highest (9.9+/-7.4, 8.8+/-5.5, and 10.3+/-4.0, respectively, p>0.05). The injury severity of multiple occupants by row was higher than that of single occupant (10.8 vs. 3, p<0.05).
CONCLUSION
An occupant must fasten their seat belt to prevent an injury by passenger interaction in the left-quarter turn rollover accident of a bus.
Summary
Evaluation of the Triage by Emergency Medical Technicians by Using Trauma Score for Occupant Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Collisions
Sang Chul Kim, Byung Woo Kim, Yang Ju Tak, Sang Hee Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2013;26(3):89-98.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The assessment of trauma patients in the prehospital setting is difficult, but appropriate field triage is critical to the prognosis of trauma patients. We sought to evaluate the triage given by the emergency medical technicians (EMTs) using the trauma score to patients injured in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs).
METHODS
From June 2012 to July 2012, questionnaires were distributed to EMTs, who had transported injured patients to the study hospital. Scene records, photos of the damaged vehicle, and ambulance run sheets were used to provide physiologic, physical, and mechanistic information about the MVC. To evaluate the appropriateness of the injury assessment by EMTs, we compared their impressions with the hospital's final diagnosis within a 3 level triage system comprising both the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS) and the injury severity score (ISS). Kappa (k) was calculated to evaluate the agreement between the triage by EMTs and the triage based on hospital's final diagnosis.
RESULTS
A total of 91 patients were analyzed by 31 EMTs. The percentage of males was 57.1%, the mean age was 44.5, and the mean MAIS and ISS were 2.7 and 16.6 respectively. While EMTs correctly diagnosed patient injuries to the extremities in 35.7%, and to the neck in 32.1%, pelvic injuries were missed in 80.0%. The agreement between the triage by the EMTs and the triage based on the hospital's final diagnosis was 62.6%(k=0.366) by the MAIS and 50.5%(k=0.234) by the ISS. The kappa value was higher in EMT-I than in EMT-II.
CONCLUSION
In MVC, the assessment of injured patients by EMT-I was more appropriate, and the 3-level triage method based on the MAIS could contribute to a more accurate triage. Prospective studies to search for appropriate methods of field triage are required for programming practical education for EMTs.
Summary
Characteristics of Head Injuries After Skiing and Snowboarding Accident
Sung Chan Kang, Kang Hyun Lee, Han Joo Choi, Kyung Hye Park, Sang Chul Kim, Hyun Kim, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(1):53-58.
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  • 2 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Skiing and snowboarding are becoming increasingly popular. Accordingly, the incidences of injuries among skiers and snowboarders are also increasing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the injury patterns of and the contributing factors to head injuries of skiers and snowboarders and to evaluate the differences in characteristics between skiing and snowboarding head injuries.
METHODS
One-hundred patients who visited the emergency department of Wonju Christian Hospital between January 2005 and March 2007 due to head injuries from skiing and snowboarding were enrolled. The mechanisms and the histories of the injuries were investigated by surveying the patients, and the degrees of head injuries were estimated by using brain CT and the Glasgow Coma Scale. The degrees and the characteristics of brain injuries were also analyzed and compared between skiers and snowboarders.
RESULTS
Out of 100 patients, 39 were injured by skiing, and 61 were injured by snowboarding. The mean age of the skiers was 26.7+/-10.0, and that of the snowboarders was 26.7+/-6.2. The percentage of male skiers was 43.6%, and that of snowboarders was 63.9%. The most frequent initial chief complaints of head-injured skiers and snowboarders were headache and mental change. The most common mechanism of injuries was a slip down. The mean Abbreviated Injury Scale Score (AIS score) of the skier group was 4.5+/-2.1 and that of the snowboarder group was 5.9+/-5.0 (p=0.222). The percentage of helmet users was 7.1% among skiers and 20.8% among snowboarders (p=0.346). Head injuries were composed of cerebral concussion (92.0%) and intracranial hemorrhage (8.0%). Intracranial hemorrhage was most frequently caused by falling down (62.5%).
CONCLUSION
The most common type of head injury to skiers and snowboarders was cerebral concussion, and severe damage was usually caused by jumping and falling down. No differences in the characteristics of the head injuries existed between skiing and snowboarding injuries.
Summary
Factors Affecting Hemodynamic Instability in Patients with Pelvic Bone Fracture
Seung Min Park, Kang Hyun Lee, Han Ju Choi, Kyung Hye Park, Sang Chul Kim, Hyun Kim, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(1):22-27.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Treatment and prognosis in patients with pelvic bone fracture depend on the characteristics of the fracture and the stability of the pelvic ring. The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of and the relationships between fracture patterns, injury mechanisms, clinical courses, and prognoses according to the hemodynamic pattern.
METHODS
Between January 2004 and September 2006, 89 patients under diagnosis of pelvic bone fracture were retrospectively analyzed on the basis of medical records and radiologic examinations. Patients with confirmed hemorragic shock with a systolic pressure of less than 90 mmHg were defined as the shock group. Young's classification was used to characterize fracture patterns. Factors relating to the clinical manifestation and to treatments such as transfusion and surgery were analytically compared.
RESULTS
The mean age of the patients was 48.8+/-18.7, among which 49 (55.1%) were male. The numbers of shock and non-shock patients were 35 (39.3%) and 54 (60.7%) respectively. Eighteen (51.4%) of the shock patient had injuries resulting from pedestrian accidents (p=0.008). According to Young's classification, lateral impact fractures amounted to 20 and 33, front-rear impact fractures to 9 and 20, and multiple fractures to 6 and 1 among the shock and non-shock patients, respectively (p=0.027). Thirty-nine (39) cases in non-shock injuries were conservatively managed while 18 cases in shock injuries were surgically treated. In the shock group, the liver and the kidney were often damaged, as well. Among the shock patients, the average admission period was 7.5+/-8.7 days in intensive care and 55.1+/-47.9 days in total, which were longer than the corresponding numbers of days for the non-shock patients (p<0.05). No deaths occurred in the non-shock group while 5 deaths (14.2%) occurred in the shock group (p=0.007).
CONCLUSION
The factors affecting hemodynamic instability in patients with pelvic bone fracture are injury mechanism, classification of fracture, and associated injuries.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury