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Ok Jun Kim 4 Articles
Multivariate Analysis of Predictive Factors for the Severity in Stable Patients with Severe Injury Mechanism
Jae Young Lee, Chang Jae Lee, Hyoung Ju Lee, Tae Nyoung Chung, Eui Chung Kim, Sung Wook Choi, Ok Jun Kim, Yun Kyung Cho
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2012;25(2):49-56.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
For determining the prognosis of critically injured patients, transporting patients to medical facilities capable of providing proper assessment and management, running rapid assessment and making rapid decisions, and providing aggressive resuscitation is vital. Considering the high mortality and morbidity rates in critically injured patients, various studies have been conducted in efforts to reduce those rates. However, studies related to diagnostic factors for predicting severity in critically injured patients are still lacking. Furthermore, patients showing stable vital signs and alert mental status, who are injured via a severe trauma mechanism, may be at a risk of not receiving rapid assessment and management. Thus, this study investigates diagnostic factors, including physical examination and laboratory results, that may help predict severity in trauma patients injured via a severe trauma mechanism, but showing stable vital signs.
METHODS
From March 2010 to December 2011, all trauma patients who fit into a diagnostic category that activated a major trauma team in CHA Bundang Medical Center were analyzed retrospectively. The retrospective analysis was based on prospective medical records completed at the time of arrival in the emergency department and on sequential laboratory test results. PASW statistics 18(SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for the statistical analysis. Patients with relatively stable vital signs and alert mental status were selected based on a revised trauma score of more than 7 points. The final diagnosis of major trauma was made based on an injury severity score of greater than 16 points. Diagnostic variables include systolic blood pressure and respiratory rate, glasgow coma scale, initial result from focused abdominal sonography for trauma, and laboratory results from blood tests and urine analyses. To confirm the true significance of the measured values, we applied the Kolmogorov-Smirnov one sample test and the Shapiro-Wilk test. When significance was confirmed, the Student's t-test was used for comparison; when significance was not confirmed, the Mann-Whitney u-test was used. The results of focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) and factors of urine analysis were analyzed using the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Variables with statistical significance were selected as prognostics factors, and they were analyzed using a multivariate logistics regression model.
RESULTS
A total of 269 patients activated the major trauma team. Excluding 91 patients who scored a revised trauma score of less than 7 points, 178 patients were subdivided by injury severity score to determine the final major trauma patients. Twenty-one(21) patients from 106 major trauma patients and 9 patients from 72 minor trauma patients were also excluded due to missing medical records or untested blood and urine analysis. The investigated variables with p-values less than 0.05 include the glasgow coma scale, respiratory rate, white blood cell count (WBC), serum AST and ALT, serum creatinine, blood in spot urine, and protein in spot urine. These variables could, thus, be prognostic factors in major trauma patients. A multivariate logistics regression analysis on those 8 variables showed the respiratory rate (p=0.034), WBC (p=0.005) and blood in spot urine (p=0.041) to be independent prognostic factors for predicting the clinical course of major trauma patients.
CONCLUSION
In trauma patients injured via a severe trauma mechanism, but showing stable vital signs and alert mental status, the respiratory rate, WBC count and blood in the urine can be used as predictable factors for severity. Using those laboratory results, rapid assessment of major trauma patients may shorten the time to diagnosis and the time for management.
Summary
Prognostic Factor, for Major Trauma Patients in the Emergency Medical Service System
Duko Lim, Tae Nyoung Chung, Chang Jae Lee, Su Guun Jin, Eui Chung Kim, Sung Wook Choi, Ok Jun Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(2):89-94.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A few studies have assessed the factors affecting the prognoses for major trauma patients and those improving the circumstances when dealing with the trauma system. In that light, we analyzed factors, such as pre-hospital factors, the time to admission, the length of stay in the emergency department (ED) and emergency operation, influencing the outcomes for trauma patients.
METHODS
The patients who visited our emergency department from April 1, 2009, to February 29, 2011, due to major trauma were enrolled in the study. The inclusion criterion was a revised trauma score (RTS) < 7 or injury severity score (ISS) > or = 16. We used reviews of medical records, to analyze each step of emergency medical care with respect to patients' sex, age, visit time and visit date. Continuous variables were described as a median with an interquartile range, and we compared the variables between the survival and the mortality groups by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Fisher's exact test was used for nominal variables. Using the variables that showed statistical significance in univariate comparisons, we performed a logistic regression analysis, and we tested the model's adequacy by the using the Hosmer-Lemeshow method.
RESULTS
A total of 261 patients with major trauma satisfied either the RTS score criterion or the ISS score criterion. Excluding 12 patients with missing data, 249 patients were included in this study. The overall mortality rate was 16.9%. Time to ED arrival, time to admission, time of ED stay, RTS, ISS, and visit date being a holiday showed statistically significant differences between the survival and the mortality groups in the univariate analysis. RTS, ISS, length of ED stay, and visit date being a holiday showed statistical significance in the multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSION
The mortality rate did not show a significant relationship with the time to ED arrival, use of 119, on time to admission. Rather, it elicited a quite significant correlation with the trauma scoring system (RTS and ISS), the time of ED stay, and the visit date being a holiday.
Summary
The Effect of Six Sigma Activity in Major Trauma Patients on the Time Spent in the Emergency Department
Hyun Soo Kim, Ok Jun Kim, Sung Wook Choi, Eui Chung Kim, Young Tae Park, Tae I Ko, Yun Kyung Cho
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):119-127.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to shorten the time spent at each stage of treatment and to reduce the total amount of time patients spend in the emergency department (ED) by applying Six Sigma in the treatment of major trauma patients.
METHODS
This is a comparative study encompassing 60 patients presenting to the ED of Bundang CHA Hospital from January 2008 to December 2008 and from July 2009 to March 2010. The stages of treatment for major trauma patients were divided into six categories (T1: total emergency department staying time, T2: duration of visit-radiologic evaluation time, T3: duration of visit-consult to department of admission, T4: duration of consultation-issue of hospital admissions time, T5: duration of visit-issue of hospital admissions time, T6: duration of issue of hospital admission-emergency department discharge time) and the total time patients spent in the ED was compared and analyzed for periods; before and after the application of Six Sigma.
RESULTS
After the application of Six Sigma, the numerical values in four of the six categories were significantly reduced; T2, T3, T4, and T5. However, the average of the total time patients spent in the ED did not show any remarkable change because the T6 increased highly. The level of Six Sigma increased 0.17sigma.
CONCLUSION
The application of Six Sigma for major trauma patients in the ED resulted in a significant improvement in the error rate for the total time patients spent in the ED. The Six Sigma activity has shown great potential. Therefore, the project is expected to bring better results in every stage of treatment if the levels of the hospital facilities are improved.
Summary
Usefulness of FAST for Evaluation of Blunt Abdominal Trauma Patients
Yong Sik Chu, Ok Jun Kim, Sung Uk Choi, Jung Han Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(2):135-142.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
We planned to determine the diagnostic capability of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) in cases of blunt abdominal injury (BAI).
METHODS
A retrospective analysis of FAST sheets was performed from April 2002 to December 2004. During the study period, 135 BAI patients were evaluated with FAST at the Emergency Department of Bundang CHA Hospital. Of this group, twenty-eight patients were excluded, leaving 107 patients for analysis. Abdomen CT (computerized tomography) or exploratory laparotomy confirmed the presence of hemoperitoneum. At the secondary survey, patients underwent a three-view FAST examination (LogicQ; General Electric, Waukesha, USA) by an emergency physician, followed within 2 hours by an abdomen CT or exploratory laparotomy. The FAST examination was considered positive if it demonstrated evidence of free intra-abdominal fluid.
RESULTS
There were 45 true-positive FAST examination, 57 true-negatives, 1 false-positive, and 4 false negatives (sensitivity 91.8%, specificity 98.3%, positive predictive value 97.8%, negative predictive value 93.4%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.951 for the FAST examination.
CONCLUSION
FAST is a highly reliable method for screening patients suspected of having BAI for the presence or absence of hemoperitoneum.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury